Cell Membrane(Plama Membrane)-what it does and what it is made up of?
It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer that has proteins embended in it. It encloses the cell and exhibits selective permeability.
Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) allows what kind of molecules to pass through....
It allows small non polar molecules such as oxygen and small polar molecules such as water. It allows proteins and libids to move in freely. Small charged molecules pass through the protein channels where as large molecules cross the membrane with the help of carrier proteins.
Proteins that carry some large charged molecules across the membrane
Controlls cell activities including cell division and contains DNA
Is a dense structure of nucleus where ribosomal RNA synthesis takes place
are the site where proteins are synthesized by the nucleolus
a network of membranes that forms an enclosed space that is involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell.
Recieves packages and their content from the smotth E.R and modifies them and repackages them into cesocles and distributes them to the cell surface by exocytosis
Are the sites of aerobic respiration, the suppliers of energy, the power house of the cell
Place where most of the cell metabolic activity occurs
Vacule and Vesicles
Are membrane bound sacs involved in the storage and transport of materials
are specialized microtubules involved in spindle organization during cell division
Membrane bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that are involved in intracellular digestion
made up of microtubules and microfilaments, give the cell mechanical support, maintain its shape and cunctions in cell motility
Involves the movement of molecules down the concentraion gradient from a region of high concentration to low without the use of energy and without the use of carrier molecules
the movement of water molecules from region of lower solute concentration to regions of higher solute concentrations
water flows out of the cell into the higher concentration of the medium (cell shrinks)
Water flows into the cell where the concentration is higher (cell grows)
concentration inside and outside of cell are the same (cell doesn't change)
Facilitated diffusion (passive transport)
movement of molecules down the concentration gradient through special channels or via carrier molecules. (uses carrier proteins)
the movement of molecules against their concentration gradiend with the help of transport proteins and the use of energy (use carrier molecules)
is the transport of materials within the cell and throughout the body of a multicellular organism
Intracellula circulation methods
1. Brownian Movement
2. Cyclosis or Streaming
3. E. R
The movement of particles due to kinetic energy spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplam of the cell
Cyclosis or Streaming
This is the circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell trasport molecules
provides channels through the cytoplasm and provide a passageway from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane
2. Circulatory System
Transports food and oxygen from the environment to the cells when the cells are in direct contact with the environment
Uses vessesls to transport fluids and a pump to drive the circulation in animals whore cells are too far from the external environment
1. increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy.
2. Are not changed or consumed in the reaction
3. Do not change the equilibrioum of the reaction (G)
Lock and Key Theory
active site is complementary to the substrate
Inducced fit theory
when the appropriate substrate comes in contacct with the active site, the active site changes its shape to fit the substrate
Most enzyme activities are reversible
yes but not all
Enzymes are effected by...
1. pH (most active at pH 7 except pepsin which prefers pH 2)
2. Temperature (40 C)
3. Concentration of enzyme and substrate
Enzyme and subtrate effects on rate of reaction
The rate of reaction increases with an increase in substrate until it finally reaches Vmax which is the maximum enzyme that are present
Hydrolizes lactose into glucose and galactose
degrates proteins to amino acids
break down lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
are enzymes that require non protein molecules called cofactors to become active
breaks the C-H bonds of glucose to release energy in a oxidation reaction. This energy is used to make phosphate bonds in ATP
Removing high energy hydrogen atoms from organic molecules
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
is used to harnest the energy from hydrocarbon bonds
uses 2 ATP molecules to break down a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvate and produces 4 ATP and 2 NADH for a netgain of 2 ATP
Anaerobic-absence of oxygen
presence of oxygen
Uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen to reduce pyruvate into ethanol and lactic acit
Occurs in yeast cells and some bacteria and it reduces pyruvate to regenerate NAD+
Lactic Acid Fermentation
occurs in human muscles when oxygen is absent
Is a aerobic catabolic pathway that is used to harvest energy that is stored in glucose
Pyruvate formed during glycolosis is transfered to the mitochndria where it loses CO2 and the acetyl group that remains is transfered to coenzyme A to produce acety CoA
Citric Acid Cycle / Kreb Cycle
the two carbon acetyl from acetyl CoA bind to a four carbon molecule (oxalocetate) to form citrate.
Citric Acid Cycle / Kreb Cycle forms what?
How does ETC make ATP
It transferes high energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen and the energy that is released during this proces in harnest and used to make ATP
are most of the molecules that make up the ETC
Substrate level phosphorylation produces how many ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation produces how many ATP?
Cellular Respiration Produces how many ATP?
Glycogen is stored where?
In the liver
disacchorides are converted into monosaccharides which can be converted into glucose
Fats ----form stored?
----Broken down to what and by what?
Fats are stored in the form of tryglycerites and are broken down by lipase intro fatty acids
What yeilds the greates ATP in cellular respiration
What must proteins undergo before being used by the body
proteins must undergo transformation reaction before being degraded by the body
What does the body prefer to use and in what order
carbonhydrates, fats, proteins
It is a proces by which bacteria obtain energy to produce organic materials
3 carbon molecules are added to 3 5-carbon molecules called RuBP to form 6 molecules of 3-GPA and then 9 molecules are used to boost the energy of those molecules. Each cycle forms one G3P molecules and two G3P molecules put together makes a glucose.
CALVIN CYCLE uses what to make what
use 9 ATP and 6 NADPH to make one G3P molecule, two G3P molecules make a glucose molecule