1. Height and Weight in Early Childhood
    • The average child grows 2.5 inches in height and
    • gains between 5 and 7 pounds a year during early childhood
  2. Myelination
    • The process by nerve cells are covered and
    • insulated with a layer of fat cells,
    • which increases the speed at which information travels through the NS
  3. Animism
    • The belief that inanimate objects have life-like
    • qualities and are capable of action
  4. Egocentrism
    • The inability to distinguish between one’s own
    • perspective and someone’s else’s
  5. Conservation
    • Awareness that altering an object’s or a
    • substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties
  6. Centration
    • The focusing of attention on one characteristics
    • to the exclusion of all others
  7. Zone of Proximal Development
    • ·
    • Vygotsky’s term for task too difficult for
    • children to master alone but that can be mastered with the assistance of adults
    • or more skilled children

    • o
    • Lower limit is the level of skill reached by the
    • child working independently

    • o
    • Upper Limit is the level of additional
    • responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor
  8. Scaffolding
    Changing the level of support
  9. Self-Understanding
    The Child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions
  10. Emotion-Coaching
    • ·
    • parents monitor their children’s emotions, view
    • their children’s negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them
    • in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions
  11. Emotion Dismissing
    • ·
    • view their role as to deny, ignore, or change
    • negative emotions
  12. Autonomous Morality
    Child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action one should consider the actors intentions as well as the consequences

    -->about 10 years of age and older
  13. Authoritarian Parenting
    Parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. Associated with social incompetence
  14. Authritative Parenting
    Parents encourage child to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Parents are warm and nurturant, associated with social competence
  15. Neglectful Parenting
    Parent is uninvolved in the child's life, associated with childrens social incompetence especially a lack of control
  16. Indulgent Parenting
    Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them, associated with social incompetence and lack of self-control
  17. Play
    A pleasurable activity in which children engage for its own sake, and its functions and forms vary
  18. Sensorimotor Play
    Behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
  19. Pretense/Symbolic Play
    Play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
  20. Practice Play
    Play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
  21. Gender Identity
    The sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old
  22. Gender Role
    A set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act and feel
  23. Gender Typing
    Acquisition of a traditional masculine or femine role
  24. Gender Schema Theory
    The theory that gender-typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their cultures gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior
Card Set
Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood