magazines, newspapers, books
Internet, mobile phones, digital networks
Predicts, explains long term formation of perceptions of the world as a result of consuming media messages.
Cultivation Analysis Assumptions
- -TV is different than other forms of media
- -more accessible
- -culture`s primary storyteller
- -TV shapes our way of thinking and relating
- -doesnt so much persuade us as to give us a particular picture of reality
- -doesnt predict what we do as a result of exposure but rather how we feel
- -TV`s influence is limited
- -occurs over the long term
- -limited effects us direct/powerful effects
Mainstreaming(effect of viewers social reality)
- -Tvs symbols dominate other sources of information
- -Higher for heavy viewers
Resonance(effects on viewers social reality)
- -Tvs symbols consistent with lived experience; amplifies cultivation
- -Higher for heavier viewers
First Order Effects(Cultivation Analysis)
How facts are learned
Second Order Effects(Cultivation Analysis)
How more general assumption and are learned, reinforced.
Spiral of SIlence
Mass Media are very influential and, along with majority opinion, silence those with minority views because people fear being isolated.
Spiral of Silence Theory Assumptions
- -Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation, fear of isolation is pervasive
- -This fear of isolation causes individuals to try to assess the climate of opinion at all time.
- -Public behavior is affected by public opinion assessment.
How public opinion is related to the media
- -pervasive sources of information
- -repetition in across media channels
- -repetition over time
- -Similar in attitudes, values, and beliefs.
"Hardcore" in Spiral of silence theory
Those who are willing to speak out at any cost, fear of social isolation does not outweigh willingness to voice opinion.
Dual climate of opinion in spiral of silence theory
opinions based on what we perceive directly, what the media reports, BUT when there is a difference people choose to remain silent.... UNLESS they are HARDCORE.
COncerned with how culture is influenced by powerful, dominant groups... ruling class, government, majority party... majority groups in society... powerful lobbying groups.... Concerned with how the powerful exert power over subordinate groups without the use of force... recognizes that one one tool of the powerful are the media
Cultural Studies Assumptions
- -Culture pervades and invades all facts of human behavior
- -Some groups hold more power than others; powerful groups act to ensure maintenance of power.
- -Media as ultimate source of power.
- - Gatekeeping function of media
- -media decides whats important, what we see from and andless supply of possible news.
- -If media does not show it, were usually not aware of it.
images, concepts, premises which provide frameworks through which we make sense of of existence.
- Domination of one group over another(without use of force)
- -people often unconciously consent to what dominant cultures suggest:false conciousness
- -competition of various cultural ideologies:theatre of struggle
- -But sometimes the people push back(counter hegemony)
- -ex: civil rights movement in U.S.
Decoding Cultural Artifacts: Audience decodes from one of three positions.
- -Dominant hegemonic: dominant code influences the less powerfull groups
- -Negotiated: audience accepts dominant ideologies but operates with some exceptions
- -opposotional: Audience substitutes alternate code for the code supplied by the dominant group.
Narrative Paradigm Theory
Humans are story-telling animals. Furthermore, narrative logic is preferred over traditional logic used in argument. Narrative logic, or the logic of good reasons suggests that people judge the credibility of speakers by whether their stories hang together(have coherence) and ring true(having fidelity). The narrative paradigm allows a democratic judgment of speakers b/c noone has to be specifically trained in persuasion to be able to draw conclusions based on the concepts of coherence and fidelity.
A significant change in the way most people see the world and its meanings.
rational wond paradigm
system of logic employed by many researchers and professionals.
Assumptions of Narrative Paradigm
- 1.) Humans are story-tellers
- 2.)Communication, and decision making are based on "good reasons"
- 3.) Good reasons are determined by history, biography, culture, character.
- 4.) Rationality is based on peoples awareness of how internally consistant and truthful to lived experienced stories appear.
- 5.) The world is experienced by people as a set of stories from which to choose among. As we choose, we live life in a process of continual re-creation.
Assumptions of Relational World Paradigm:
- 1.) Humans are rational beings
- 2.) decision making is based on argument
- 3.) arguments adhere to specific criteria for soundness and logic.
- 4.) rationality is based in the quality of knowledge and formal reasoning processes
- 5.) World can be reduced to a series of logical relationships that are uncovered through reasoning.
narration(narrative paradigm theory)
- an account to which listeners assign meaning
- -verbal, non-verbal
- -Fisher believes all communication is narrative
narrative rationality(narrative paradigm theory)
A standard for judging which stories to believe and which to disregard: operates in 2 different ways; 1)coherence. 2.) fidelity
- A principle of narrative rationality judging the internal consistency of history. 3 specific types:
- 1) structural coherence- referring to the flow of the story
- 2)material coherence- referring to the consequence between on e story and other related stories
- 3) Characterological coherence- referring to the believability of the characters of the story.
- A principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story
- good reasons- a set of values for accepting, provides a method for assessing fidelity.
Characteristicas of culture: Cultures are learned, cultures are shared(group understanding, group norms), cultures are multi- faceted(effects on education, social organization, politics, law,etc.... what is common in one culture may be taboo in another... cultures are dynamic.
Barriers to intercultural communication
- Perception- use our cultural values to understand the world around us. Need to be aware of cultural values of others.
- Culture and Role identity- need to understand role differences and appropriate behaviors. Ex. age; in U.S. youth is revered... in other cultures, old age is revered.
- Culture and Goals- US goal oriented, other countries do not have same ideas about getting ahead.
- Culture and Self image- rationality, individualism
- Culture and Language Style- In US, plain, direct, efficiant, usually valued..... in other countries discussing ones family first or offering praise might be valued.
Face Negotiation Theory
Based on face management, cultures manage conflict negotiation to maintain face.
for self and others
- positive- to be liked
- negative- to be free from constraints
Face work:in reference to the other person
- Tact: respecting the others autonomy
- Solidarity: accepting another as a member
- Approbation: focus more on positive, less on negative
prevents, face restoring(fives)
Assumptions of Face Negotiation Theory
- -Self identity is important in interpersonal interactions; individuals negotiate identities differently accross cultures
- -Conflict management is mediated by face and culture
- -Certain acts threaten one`s projected self-image
Muted Group Theory
- -Subordinate groups are less well served by the language because they had little/ no part in creating.
- -Groups near the top of the social hiearchy determine the communication system for a society
- -Language shapes perceptions, so it`s a tool for imposing the dominant groups perspective.
Assumptions of Muted Group Theory
- -Women perceive the world differently than men because of different experiences and activities.
- -Men`s perspective is dominant, impeding women`s expression
- -Women must transform experiences into male system of expression.
The process of silencing(4 ways)
- ritual-silencing through tradition/culture
- control- means of communication/ shifting topic
- harassment- verbal and physical threats
Uses and Gratifications theory
people are active in choosing particular media to satisfy specific needs. Emphasizing a limited effects position, media has a limited effect b/c users can exercise control and choice. People are self-aware, and can understand why they use media. The see media as gratifying needs.
Assumptions of USes and Gratifications THeory
- 1) active audiences use media in goal-oriented ways
- 2) audience choose medium to gratify needs
- 3) audience can choose from many media
- 4) audience is aware of and can describe uses and motives
- 5) audience alone can make value judgments
The active audience(activity)
- -imperviousness to influence
media effects to uses and gratifications
- - media can still have effects, even with an active audience.
- - audience doesnt always have complete freedom over uses and gratifications
- - media create, contribute to those social situations and portray themselves as the best means of gratifying needs.
Needs and media use(uses and gratifications)
- cognitive: acquire information, knowledge, comprehension
- affective: emotional or aesthetic experience
- personal interegrative: enhancing credibility, confidence and status
- social integrative: enhancing connection with family/friends
- tension release: escape and diversion
Definition of Mass Communication
Instutional sources address large, diverse audiences in which members are separate from each other. Sources are complex and profit driven. Receivers are anonymouse and dispersed. Communication is indirect.
Process of doing cultivation analysis
- 1) message system analysis- consists of detailed content analysises of television programming in order to demonstrate its most recurring and consistent presentations of images, themes, values, and portrayals.
- 2) formulation of questions about viewers social realities- involves developing questions about peoples understandings of their everyday lives.
- 3) surveying the audience- requires that the questions from step 2 be posed to audience members and that the researchers ask these viewers about their levels of television consuption.
- 4) comparing social realities of light/heavy viewers- heavy viewers are those who watch the most in any sample of people that are measured, whereas light viewers are those who watch the least.
ex: dangerous video games lead to crime..... people in the world view media as having an effect on the world.
Schramms fraction of selection
expectation of reward divided by effort required
refers to what the media consumer does
refers to how much freedom the audience really has in the face of mass media.
public opinion(spiral of silence)
"attitudes or behaviors one must express in public if one is not to isolate oneself, in areas of controversy or change, public opinions are those attitudes one can express w/out running the danger of isolating oneself."
people often unconciously consent to what dominant idiologist suggests
- dominating- using influence or authority to make decisions
- integrating- collaborating with others to find solutions
- obliging- satisfying the needs of others
- compromising-using give and take to acheive a middle road resolution
- avoiding- staying away from disagreements