first aid

  1. shock occurs when the body parts do not recieve adequate:
    oxygenated blood
  2. without oxygen the brain will start to be irreparably damaged in__to__ minuties
  3. victims of shock usually experience the following altered mental status
    anxiety and restlessness
  4. anaphyactic shock
    is a massive allergic reaction
  5. which of the following are signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis
    • intense itching
    • flushed skin
    • hives
  6. in_ bleeding blood spurs up to several feet from the wound
  7. which is the most serious type of bleeding
  8. what type of bleeding is the most common is usually not serious, and is easily controlled
  9. blood from _ flows steadily or gushes
  10. the first method used to control external bleeding should be
    direct pressure
  11. if a dressing becomes blood soaked what shold be done
    apply another dressing on top of the old one
  12. whichwound reslults in skin cut with jagged irregular edges
  13. which wound is usually deep and narrow, with a high risk of infection
  14. which wound is smooth edged
  15. which wound usually involves ears, fingers, and hands, and result in tearing of a flap skin
  16. which wound involves the cutting or tearing off of a body part
  17. for a shallow wound, wash inside it with
    soap and water
  18. the bes way to irrigate a wound is by
    letting water from a faucet rapidly pour into the wound
  19. which first aid supply is applied over a wound to control bleeding and prevent contamination
  20. what are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound
    • throbbing pain
    • pus discharge
    • fever
  21. tetanus is caused by
    a toxing produced by a bacteria
  22. tetanus shots must be given within_ hours of the injury to be effective
  23. what type of amputation occurs when an extremity separates by being crushed or mashed off
  24. the bag container with the wrapped amputated part should be
    placed on a bed of ice
  25. what is the proper procedure for breaking a blister
    drain the fluid by making a small hole at the blisters edge
  26. Applying a Sterile Dressing
    • •Wash your hands and wear medical exam gloves.
    • •Use a dressing large enough to extend over the wound.
    • •Cover the dressing with a bandage.
  27. Dressings
    • •A dressing covers an open wound and touches the wound.
    • •Whenever possible, a dressing should be:
    • •Sterile
    • •Larger than the wound
    • •Thick, soft, and compressible
    • •Lint free
  28. Bandages
    • •Should be clean but need not be sterile
    • •Can be used to:
    • •Hold a dressing in place.
    • •Apply pressure over a dressing.
    • •Prevent or reduce swelling.
    • •Provide support and stability for an extremity or joint
  29. Signs that a bandage may be too tight:
    • •Blue tinge on fingernails or toenails
    • •Blue or pale skin color
    • •Coldness of extremity
    • •Inability to move fingers or toes
  30. Applying a Cravat Bandage to the head
    • •Place middle of bandage over the dressing and wrap around the body part.
    • •Cross the two ends snugly over each other.
    • •Bring ends back around to where dressing is and tie ends in knot.
  31. Applying a Cravat Bandage to the arm or leg
    • •Wrap center of bandage over the dressing.
    • •With one end, make one turn going up the extremity and another turn going down.
    • •Tie bandage off over the dressing
  32. Applying a Cravat Bandage to the hand
    • •Fill palm with bulky dressing or pad and close fingers.
    • •Wrap bandage, crossing over the fingers and around the wrist.
    • •Tie the bandage off at the wrist.
  33. Applying a Roller Bandage spiral method
    • •Make two straight anchoring turns with the bandage.
    • •Wrap with criss-cross (figure-eight turns).
    • •Finish with two straight turns and secure the bandage
  34. Applying a Roller Bandage firgured 8
    • •Anchor bandage with one or two turns.
    • •Continue alternating the turns in figure-of-eight maneuver until body part is secured
  35. Securing Bandages loop method
    • •Reverse direction of bandage by looping it around a thumb or finger.
    • •Continue back to the opposite side of the body part.
    • •Encircle part with the looped end and the free end.
    • •Tie ends together.
  36. Securing Bandages split tail method
    • •Split end of bandage lengthwise for about 12 inches.
    • •Tie in a knot to prevent further splitting.
    • •Pass ends in opposite directions around body part and tie.
  37. Thermal Burns
    • •Contact with flames, hot objects, hot liquid, and steam are common causes of burns.
    • •Just 3 seconds of exposure to water at 140ºF can cause a full-thickness burn in an adult.
    • •At 156ºF, the same burn occurs in one second
  38. Evaluating a Thermal Burn
    • •Determine the depth (degree).
    • •First-degree (superficial)
    • •Second-degree (partial thickness)
    • •Third-degree (full thickness)
    • •Determine the extent (Rule of palm).
    • •Determine which parts of body are burned.
    • •Determine whether other injuries or medical conditions exist, or if the patient is elderly or very young.
    • •Determine the severity of the burn.
  39. Care for Thermal Burns
    • •Stop the burning process.
    • •If clothing is burning, have the victim drop and roll.
    • •Smother the flames with a blanket or douse the victim with water.
    • •Once the fire is extinguished, remove all hot clothing.
    • •Remove jewelry if possible.
    • •Monitor the victim’s breathing.
  40. Recognizing First-Degree Burns (Superficial)
    • •Redness
    • •Mild swelling
    • •Tenderness
    • •Pain
  41. Care for First-Degree Burns
    • •Immerse the burned area in cold water or apply a wet, cold cloth.
    • •Administer ibuprofen to relieve pain.
    • •Have the victim drink as much water as possible.
    • •After the burn is cooled, apply aloe vera.
    • •Raise a burned arm or leg to reduce swelling
  42. Recognizing Second-Degree Burns(Partial Thickness)
    • •Blisters
    • •Swelling
    • •Weeping fluids
    • •Intense pain
  43. Care for Large Second-Degree Burns
    • •Do not apply cold because it could cause hypothermia.
    • •Cover the burn with a dry, nonstick, sterile dressing.
    • •Treat victim for shock.
    • •Seek medical care
  44. Third-Degree Burns(Full Thickness)
    • •Dead nerve endings
    • •Leathery, waxy skin
    • •Pearly gray or charred skin
  45. Chemical Burns
    • •A chemical burn is the result of a caustic or corrosive substance touching the skin.
    • •They continue to burn as long as they are in contact with the skin; remove quickly.
    • •First aid is the same for all chemical burns.
  46. Care for Chemical Burns
    • •Flush skin with water.
    • •Remove contaminated clothing.
    • •Flush for 20 minutes or longer.
    • •Cover burn.
    • •Seek medical care.
  47. Electrical Burns
    • •Thermal burn (flame)
    • •Arc burn (flash)
    • •True electrical injury (contact
  48. Care for Electrical Burns
    • •Make the scene safe.
    • •Monitor breathing and treat accordingly.
    • •If victim fell, check for a spinal injury.
    • •Treat victim for shock.
    • •Place blankets under and over victim.
    • •Seek immediate medical care.
  49. Scalp Wounds
    • •Control bleeding by using direct pressure over wound.
    • •If skull fracture is suspected, apply pressure around the edges of the wound.
    • •Keep head and shoulders slightly elevated if spinal injury is not suspected.
    • •Seek medical care
  50. Recognizing a Skull Fracture
    • •Pain at point of injury
    • •Deformity of the skull
    • •Bleeding from ears and nose
    • •Cerebrospinal fluid leaking from ear or nose
    • •Discoloration around eyes
    • •Discoloration behind ear
    • •Heavy scalp bleeding if the skin is broken
    • •Penetrating wound
  51. Care for a Skull Fracture
    • Cover the wounds with a sterile dressing.
    • •Apply pressure around the edges of the wound.
    • •Monitor breathing and provide appropriate care.
    • •Stabilize the victim’s neck to prevent movement.
    • •Elevate the victim’s head and shoulders to help control bleeding.
  52. Brain Injuries
    • •When the head is struck with force, the brain bounces against the inside of the skull.
    • •Swelling of brain tissue compresses the brain, which interferes with brain functioning.
    • •Three types of commonly occurring brain injuries:
    • •Concussion
    • •Contusion
    • •Hematoma
  53. Eye Injuries
    • •Penetrating eye injuries
    • •Blows to the eye
    • •Cut of the eye or lid
    • •Chemical in the eyes
    • •Eye avulsion
    • •Loose objects in the eye
    • •Light burns to the eye
  54. Penetrating Eye Injuries
    • •Penetrating eye injuries are severe injuries that result a sharp object penetrates the eye.
    • •Suspect penetration any time you see a lid laceration or cut
  55. Blows to the Eye
    • •Blows to the eye range in severity from minor or sight threatening.
    • •A shiner or black eye occurs when some of the blood vessels around the eye rupture.
    • •A blunt object can break the bone around the eyeball
  56. Care for Blows to the Eye
    • •Apply ice for about 15 minutes.
    • •Do not apply pressure on the eye.
    • •Seek medical care if there is pain or reduced vision.
  57. Cuts of the Eye or Lid
    • •The signs of a cut eyeball or lid include the following:
    • •Cut appearance of the cornea or sclera.
    • •Inner liquid filling of the eye may come out through the wound.
    • •Lid is cu
  58. Care for Cuts of the Eye or Lid
    • •If eyeball is cut, do not apply pressure.
    • •If eyelid is cut, apply gentle pressure.
    • •Bandage both eyes lightly.
    • •Seek medical care.
  59. Chemical in the Eyes
    • •Chemicals in the eyes can threaten sight.
    • •Alkalis cause greater damage than acids because they penetrate deeper and continue to burn longer.
    • •Damage can occur in 1 to 5 minutes.
  60. Care for Chemical in the Eye
    • •Hold the eye open.
    • •Flush the eye with water for at least 20 minutes.
    • •Loosely bandage both eyes with cold, wet dressings.
    • •Seek medical care
  61. Loose Objects in the Eye
    • •Loose objects in the eye are the most frequent eye injury and can be very painful.
    • •Tearing is common because it is the body’s way of trying to remove the object
  62. Care for Loose Objects in the Eye
    • •Lift the upper lid over the lower lid.
    • •Try flushing the object out with water.
    • •Examine the lower lid by pulling it down gently.
    • •If you see the object, remove it with moistened sterile gauze.
  63. Light Burns to the Eye
    • •Burns can result if a person looks at a source of ultraviolet light such as sunlight, bright snow, or tanning lamps.
    • •Severe pain occurs 1 to 6 hours after exposure
  64. Care for Light Burns to the Eye
    • •Cover both eyes with cold, wet packs.
    • •Tell the victim not to rub the eyes.
    • •Have the victim rest in a darkened room.
    • •Give pain medication, if needed.
    • •Seek medical care
  65. Ear Injuries
    • •Most ear problems are not life-threatening.
    • •Except for disk batteries and live insects, few foreign bodies must be extracted immediately.
    • •First aiders should seek medical care for the victim because attempts to remove a foreign body can rupture the eardrum or lacerate the ear canal
  66. Nosebleeds
    • •Anterior nosebleeds
    • •From front of nose
    • •Most common, easier to care for
    • •Posterior nosebleeds
    • •From back of nose
    • •More serious, require medical care
  67. Care for Nosebleeds
    • •Pinch the soft parts of the nose together.
    • •Press firmly toward the face, for 5 to 10 minutes.
    • •Keep the head higher than the heart.
    • •Apply ice over nose.
    • •Seek medical care if needed.
  68. Recognizing a Broken Nose
    • Pain, swelling, and a possible crooked appearance.
    • •Bleeding and difficulty breathing through nostrils
    • •Black eyes appearing 1 to 2 days after injury
  69. Care for a Broken Nose
    • •Seek medical care.
    • •If bleeding is present, give care as for a nosebleed.
    • •Apply an ice pack to the nose for 15 minutes.
    • •Do not try to straighten a crooked nose
  70. Objects in the Nose
    A foreign object in the nose is a problem mainly among small children
  71. Care for Objects in the Nose
    • •Try to induce sneezing by having the victim sniff pepper.
    • •Have the victim blow gently while you put compression on the opposite nostril.
    • •Use tweezers to pull out an object that is visible.
    • •Seek medical care if the object cannot be removed.
  72. Recognizing Spinal Injuries
    • •Painful movement or paralysis of arms and legs
    • •Numbness, tingling, weakness, burning sensation in arms and legs
    • •Loss of bladder or bowel control
    • •Deformity of neck
  73. Care for Spinal Injuries
    • •Monitor breathing.
    • •For an unresponsive victim, open the airway and check for breathing.
    • •Stabilize the victim to prevent movement by using one of the following methods:
    • •Grasp the victim’s head over the ears and hold the head and neck still until EMS arrives.
    • •Kneel with the victim’s head between your knees or place objects on each side of the victim’s head to prevent it from rolling side to side.
Card Set
first aid