Health Psych

  1. 4 Factors of Health-related behavior
    • Genetics
    • Cognitives
    • Personality
    • Learning
  2. Health Belief Model
    • Does not include intentions
    • 1. Assess threat regarding health problem, which includes percieved susceptibility, seriousness, cues to action.
    • 2. Assess benefits and barriers.
  3. Theory of Planned Behavior
    • includes intentions
    • 3 factors:
    • Our attitude to behavior
    • Subject norm of that behavior
    • Percieved behavioral control
    • ex. exercise is great, its accepted and recommended, and I could find time like before
  4. 5 Stages of Change Model
    • for quitting smoking, losing weight
    • takes into account that some people aren't ready to change
    • can relapse at any stage

    • Stages:
    • 1. Precontemplation- haven't thought of changing
    • 2. Contemplation- thinking about changing by weighing pros and cons
    • 3. Preparation- choose to take action and now setting goals
    • 4. Action- beginning healthy behavior
    • 5. Maintenance- keeping healthy
  5. teratogens
    environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development, such as an STD or genetic abnormality
  6. Childhood and Adolescents
    • largest cause of death is accidents
    • develop cognitively
    • bad habits develop-peer pressure
  7. Adults are __ likely to engage in healthy behavior
    more because they feel vulnerable as they grow older
  8. Women live longer because :
    • visit doctor more frequently
    • men engage in more risky behavior; strenuous work; durg/alcohol
    • men have higher bl pressure
  9. Health and Socioeconomics
    • There is a positive correlation between health and social class
    • poorer people tend to be more stressed and less educated
  10. minorities are __ likely to have high levels of health problems
  11. Vehicles of Health Promotion
    • Mass Media
    • Medical Settings
    • Computer
  12. 2 features of information to enhance motivation
    Tailored content- you tend to be intersted if sometihng is geared to you

    • Message Framing
    • a. Gain framed- what you can gain and avoid
    • b. Loss framed- focus on negative consequences of not
    • engaging in behavior
    • ex. no condom means STD
  13. 2 programs that promote health
    • 1. Schools- provide free edu to a large amount of kids, afterschool programs, involves parents
    • 2. Work/Community programs- zumba or yoga at work

    Hard to tailor these
  14. Psychoactive drugs:
    produce changes in emotions, conciousness, and behavior

    alcohol, cocaine
  15. Agonist
    Drugs can get past the bl-brain barrier and mimic actions of a neurotransmitter; they will bind to receptor in place of neurotransmitter
  16. Antagonist
    Drugs can get past the bl-brain barrier and block the actions of the neurotransmitter; this increases effects of the neurotransmitter
  17. Substance abuse
    maladaptive use of a substance that is not necessarily dependent
  18. Criteria for Substance Abuse (need 1 out of 4)
    • Recurrent drug use that results in failuer to complete daily responsibility
    • Recurrent drug use in situations that are physically hazardous
    • Recurring drug-related legal problems
    • Causes interpersonal problems
  19. Addiction
    • person is physically and psychologically dependent on the substance
    • body can't function normal without substance
    • They have physical dependence-experience tolerance and withdrawal
    • pscyho dependence- crave euphoria from drug
  20. Withdrawal results from alcohol
    • delirium tremors
    • extreme shaking
    • confusion
    • terrifying hallucinations
    • memory problems
  21. Positive Reinforcement
    give us a "buzz" because they activate the mesolimbis dopamine reward system that result in euphoria
  22. Negative Reinforcement
    Also increase the likelihood of a behaviro occuring again because they reduce anxiety, stress
  23. Classical Conditioning
    • there are cues that are internal, and there are environmental stimuli associated with the substance being abused
    • UCS- nicotine
    • UCR- relaxation
    • CS- smell of cigarette, ash tray, stressed
  24. There is a ___ link between alcohol addiction
  25. Who smokes more?
    • men
    • less educated
    • those who started in HS
  26. Start Smoking because:
    • of psychosocial influences from family or friends
    • low self-esteem
  27. Pathway of Nicotine in the Body
    • 1. Smoke gets into the lungs and into the alveoli sacs (air sacs attached to capillaries) and then nicotine gets into the blood
    • 2. Nicotine crosses the bl-brain barrier and gets into the brain and activates reginos of the brain involved with reward and addiction
    • 3. Nicotien causes the release of NT's into the brain, like dopamine
    • 4. Nicotine works as an agonist (mimics acetycholine)
  28. When you smoke chronically it affects the Acetycholine process in the brain
    The brain decreases or stops producing acetylcholine because nicotine binds in place of it in the receptors
  29. Harmful substances ingested through Smoking
    • CO2- inhaled through smoking and decreases oxygen flow into blood
    • Tar- a carcinogen that is a cancer-causing agent
  30. 2 types of Cigarette Smoke
    Mainstream smoke- breather in smoker's exhale

    Sidestream smoke- breathing in the lit end of the cigarette; most dangerous because it hasn't been filtered
  31. Health risks associated with smoking
    • Cancer
    • Cardiovascular disease
  32. Cancer
    • in lungs, mounth, esopogus, kidneys. Irritation from smoke causes an increased amount of cells in bronchial lining and a decrease activity of cilia
    • lung cancer develops because of a build-up of smoke and tar in lungs
  33. Cardiovascular Disease
    • nictine constricts blood vessels
    • carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the heart
  34. Quitting Smoking Methods
    • Nicotine replacement products- have low amounts of nicotien and no tar, gradually wean self off
    • Chantix- partial agonist for acetylcholine receptor, binds to receptor but partially activates dopamine, smoking and chantix=nausea
    • Aversive Smoking-involves cognitive behavior therapy- use aversive conditions to make process of smoking uncomfortable (lots of puffs in a row)
  35. standard drink
    1.5 oz alcohol, 12 oz beer, 5 oz wine
  36. blood alcohol content factors
    • # drinks
    • gender (women have mroe fat and less water to dilute alcohol)
    • weight
    • drink
    • stomach content
  37. Legel driving BAC
  38. Alcohol: small doses vs large doses
    • small=relaxation
    • large=sedation, depression, impaired concentration
  39. Alcohol is a __
    • depressant: it enhances GABA activity which depresses CNS
    • alcohol binds to GABA receptor in different place than receptor
  40. 4 tpyes of "problem drinking"
    • Binge Drinking-5 or more drinks in one night
    • Heavy use Drinking-binge drinking more than once a month
    • Problem Drinking-interferes with daily functions and causes problems with relationships
    • Addiction-physically and psychologically addicted
  41. How drinking affects health
    • Accidents (usually traffic)
    • Cirrhosis of the liver- chronic drinking kills cells and causes scar tissue so the cells can't regenerate-causes liver to be unable to cleanse blood
    • Brain Damage
Card Set
Health Psych
Drugs, Alcohol, Diet