responsible to perfrom, legally bound
failure to act, there is a duty or responsibility and damage occured
standard of care
the level of competency anticipated or mandated in the performance of the service or duty
enacted by legislation
mandated by laws and are tools to implement those laws
CWA - clean water act
- -emergency response to spills in water ways. (primarily oil spills.)
- -established the national response system (NRS), national contingency plan (NCP), and national response team (NRT).
- -mandates federal regulations.
(RCRA) - Resource conservation and recovery act
- dealt with treatment, storage and disposal of all wastes.
- environmentally safe handling of waste
(CERCLA) - comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act of 1980
- commonly known as the superfund
- expanded the NRT
- placed additional emphasis on emergency response.
(SARA) - superfund amendments and reauthorization act
- integrated state and local goverment during responses
- development of safety and training standards
- community planning and right to know
(OSHA) - occupational health and safety act
- mandates guidelines for worker safety
- covered under 29 CFR 1910.120
(EPA) 40 CFR 300-311
identical regulation as 29 CFR 1910.120. so there is no difference between OSHA and EPA states.
(DOT) 49 CFR 100-199
- hazmat transportation regulations. to include shipping requirements, placards and labeling, shipping papers, containers, and classifications.
- enforced by state and local agencies.
- standard for competence of responders to hazardous material/WMD incidents
- basis for 29 CFR 1920.120
- exceeds EPA and OSHA requirements
standard of cometencies for EMS personnel responding to hazmat and WMD incidents
first responders at the awareness level shall be trained to meet all competencies
- recognize the presence
- protect themselves
- call for trained personnel
- secure the area
analyze the incident
- detect- the presence of hazmat/WMD
- survey- for ID#, placard, or other distinctive markings
- collect- hazard info from the DOT, ERG.
implement - actions consistent with the emergency response plan and ERG, by completing the following tasks
- isolation- set perimeters and zones using the ERG.
- protection- initiate the incident command system, ensure protection of responders and the pudlic
Hazardous materials- as difined by NFPA 472
a substance that when released is capable of creating harm to people, the environment, and property, including WMD, as well as any criminal use of hazmat
hazardous materials is defined by DOT as
hazmat to cover 9 hazard clases, some of which have subcategories called divisions. includes in it, regulations hazardous substances and hazardous wastes as class 9 (miscellaneous hazmat), both of which are regulated by the U.S. EPA.
Hazardous substances is defined by the EPA as
chemicals that, if released into the environment above a certain amount, must be reported, and, depending on the threat tothe environment, federal involvement in handling the incident can be authorized.
Hazardous substances as used by OSHA
every chemical regulated by both DOT and EPA
extremely hazardous substances is defined by EPA for
chemicals that must be reported to the appropriate authorities if released above the threshold reporting quantity. identified in title 3 of (SARA) 40 CFR 355.
toxic chemicals is defined by the EPA for
chemicals whose total emissions or releases must be reported annually by owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, process, or othrwise use a listed toxic chemical. the list of toxic chemicals is identified in title 3 of SARA.
EPA uses the term hazardous wastes for
chemicals that are regulated under the resource, conservation, and recovery act (40 CFR 261.33) hazardous wastes in transport are regulated by DOT
OSHA uses the term Hazardous Chemicals to
denote any chemical that would be a risk to employees if they were exposed in the workplace. Covers a broader group of chemicals than the other chemical lists.
in the United Nations model codes and regulations, hazardous materials are called
OSHA uses the term Highly hazardous chemicals for
chemicals that fall under the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.119. chemicals that possess toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive properties.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
- any destructive device, such as any exlosive, incendiary, or poison gas, bomb, grenade, rocket having apropellant charge of more that 4 ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one quarter ounce, mine, or device similar to the above.
- any weapon involving toxic or poisonous chemicals
- any weapon involving a disease organism
- any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life.
DOT has classified hazardous materials/ WMD accordig to
their primary danger and assigned standardized symbols to identify the classes.
- Explosives - major hazard - explosion
- definition: any substance or article, including a device that is designed to function by explosion or that, by chemical reaction within itself is able to function by explosion
Explosives that have a mass explosive hazard. one that affects almost the entire load instantaneously.
Ex: black powder, dynamite, T-N-T
Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
Ex: aerial flares, detonation cord, and power device cartridges.
explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard, or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Ex: liquid-fueled rocket motors, and propellant explosives
explosive devices that present a minor explosion hazard. no device in the division may contain more than 25 grams (0.9oz) of a detonating material. the explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is expected. an external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.
Ex: line throwing rockets, practice ammo, and signal cartridges.
Very insensitive explosion substances that have a mass explosion hazard but, are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
Ex: Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer, fuel oil mixtures, Blasting agents.
Extremely insensitive articles, do not have a mass explosive hazard. contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and that demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
Ex: squib - construction framing.
Class 2 and major hazard
- hazard: BLEVE- boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
- sub-hazard: flammable, oxidizer, and poisonous
- Flammable gas,
- gas at 68oF or less and 14.7 psi of pressure
- boiling point of 68oF or less at 14.7 psi
- ignitable at 14.7 psi when in a mixture of 13% or less by volume with air.
- Ex: inhibited butadienes, methly chloride, propane
- Nonflammable, nonpoisonous- compressed gas, liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas.
- -a nonflammable, nonposionous compressed gas means any material or mixture that exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 41 psi at 68oF
- Ex: anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic argon, carbon dioxide, compressed nitrogen.
- Poisonous Gas, toxic by inhalation
- gases that vaporize easily, that are very dangerous to life, even in small amounts.
- a material that is a gas at 68oF or less and a pressure of 14.7 psi or 1 atm, has a Bp of 68oF or less at 14.7 psi
- is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation.
- Ex: hydrogen fluoride, arsine, chlorine, methyl bromide, phose gene, and Cyanogen chloride (CK)
Class 3 - major hazard
burns readily, Flammable and combustible liquids.
Class 3 - Flammable liquid
- any liquid having a flash point below 140oF
- Ex: acetone, amyl acetate, gasoline, methyl alcohol, and toluene.
Class 3 - combustible liquid
- any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class and has a lash point between 140oF and 200oF
- Ex: mineral oil, peanut oil, No. 6 fuel oil.
- flammable and combustible solids
- major hazard: rapid combustion with a liberation of mass quantities of smoke
- Flammable soliddesensitzed explosives- wetted w/ sufficient water, alcohol, or plasticizer to suppress explosive properties
- self-reactive materials- undergo, at normal or elevated temps, a strongly exothermic decomposition casued by excessively high transport temperatures or by contamination
- readily combustible solids- cause a fire through friction and any metal powders that can be ignited.
- Ex: magnesium and nitrocellulose.
- spontaneously combustible material
- pyrophoric material- a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source can ignite within five mins. after coming in contact with air
- self-heating material- a material that when in contact with air and without an energy supply is liable to self heat.
- Ex: aluminum alkyls, charcoal briquettes, magnesium alkyls, and phosphorus
- Dangerous when wet
- material that by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable toxic gas.
- Ex: calcium carbide, magnesium powder, potassium metal alloys, and sodium hydride.
- supports combustion, intensifies fire
- unstable/ reactive explosives
- Oxidizer- generally by yeilding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials
- Ex: ammonium nitrate, bromine trifluorioide, and calcium hypochlorite.
- Organic peroxide
- type A- forbidden
- type A=most - type G=least sensitive
- Ex: dibenzoyl peroxide, methel ethyl ketone peroxide, and peroxyacetic acid
- hazard- toxixity, infectious
- poisonous materials
- other than gas
- toxic to humans, including irritatin materials
- Ex: aniline arsenic compounds, cabon tetrachloride, tear gas, and hydrocyanic acid
- Infectious substance- containing a pathogen or a prion, that has the potential to cause disease in humans or animals. infectious substance, aka etiologic agent.
- Ex: anthrax, botulism, rabies, tetanus, polio, and virus
- radioactive poisonous burns
- any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed specified values.
- Ex: cobalt, uranium, hexafluoride, and yellow cake
- Corrosive- burns/ emulsification skin damage
- a liquid or solid that cause full-thickness destruction of in at the site of contact within a specified period of time. a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum
- Ex: nitric acid, phosphorus trichloride, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid.
- a material that presents a hazard during transport, but that is not included in another hazard class.
- any material that has anestehetic, noxious, or other similar property that could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to flight crew members so as to prevent the correct performance of assigned duties.
- Ex: adipic acid, PCBs, molten sulfur.
- other regulated materials
- a pateial that presents a limited hazard during trortation due to its form, quantity, and packaging.
- Ex: includes consumer commodities, small arms ammo.