1. What is Rousseau's complaint of arts and sciences?
    • more time is spent studying rather than living it
    • taken us away from our primordial relationship with ourselves and nature
    • mutilate our manly virtues, loss of fundamental virtues that need to be practiced
    • certain values and talents are valued more than others in society; these people are given the line and share of what society has to offer; create inequalities that can't be justified
  2. Rousseau's main problem?
    romantic vision of human nature, fail to address that sin is a problem, humans make decisions based on preconceived notions and biases
  3. What does Kant means by metaphysical?
    meta (above) and physics (the physical realm) what is it that grounds the material world, what makes the world be what it is. Reason into the formal and material knowledge
  4. What is the purpose of metaphysics?
    to seek out principle of pure will and supreme principle of morality; pure wil is the good will
  5. what makes the good will good?
    good through choosing its duty
  6. What is duty?
    necessity of action done from necessity of law, doing action for its own sake
  7. What is categorical imperative?
    act in such a way that your actions can be seen as universal maximums; something that is binding on all rational creatures. If this person acts deceptively, then all can act this way; universe would be in chaos
  8. What is the source of our human dignity?
    treat everyone as ends not as means because we are all capable of making laws that we will all follow
  9. What is the kingdom of ends?
    we are autonomous (the capacity to give ourselves the law), we create these laws and we follow them, the kingdom of ends, each person is treating each others as ends and we create and follow these laws. it is the union of autonomous people, living under common laws at the end of history.
  10. what is freedom for Kant?
    freedom comes hand in hand with autonomy; autonomy is oriented toward your freedom; freedom for choosing what is the good. automonty is creating laws and following them. Freedom is being self-legislator.
  11. What is analogous in Rousseau and Kant?
    • general will is to the common good
    • good will is to duty
    • we are sovereigns, when we do our duty we are also making laws
  12. What is practical imperative?
    treat others as ends not as means
  13. What is the moral worth of laws?
    is it from doing for the sake of duty? is it how you would want everyone else to act?
  14. All men have capacity for what in Kant?
    to be rational; maximize pleasure is irrational
  15. What is the proper function of reason for Kant? when is the good will good? What is the objective end?
    reason gives good will its duty, good will is good when it does its duty, objective end of moral choice is doing one's duty, it is out there for all man to understand and do, not predicated on results and passions
  16. What doesn't kant take into consideration? What is he trying to do?
    take out feelings and consequences as long as you do your duty; get away from mercenary ethics, away from what's in it for me (like Roussesau). Strict code that allows us to choose how we ought to choose. Way of choosing that takes out any empirical data, acting purely fro one's duty ("ought")
  17. What is happiness for Kant? How does it differ from the ancients? What if reason is based on happiness?
    based on experiences, is empricial, it's abour satisfying one's desires. For the ancients, reason is needed to figure out what it means to be happy b/c there is a telos. Take feelings into consideration when we have to choose what is good. Reason help us understand happiness. For Kant, we don't really know what we want, if reason is based on happiness, reason is a wasted function, reason would be too shallow
  18. where is the source of dignity?
    treat others as ends and not as means, we should see that each of us has capaity to make laws, are rational and treat them accordingly
  19. What is hypothetical imperative?
    concerned with results, done for some other purpose, involves consequences
  20. What does imperative mean in metaphysics?
    a common that everyone should be happy, we should want everyone to thrive, but it should not come int he way of doing your duty
  21. What is the problem with Kant's notion of laws?
    laws are rationally and inherently just, takes us out of context of human living and history, not taking sin and biases into consideration
  22. What if one doesn't act according to his duty?
    will not move towards the kingdom of ends; sets stage for others to not follow their duty, lies becomes justified, les can bloosm into bigger lies
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