When did Luther pledge to become a monk after he was caught in a thunderstorm? Which division of monks did he join?
When did Luther have his "tower experience"? And what line from the Bible did he come across that especially inspired him?
- "The righteous shall live by faith". - led to his idea that salvation can only be achieved through faith alone - sola fide.
When did Luther pin the Ninety-five Theses on the University door in Wittenburg?
1517 (Indulgences controversy)
When was Luther threatened by Cardinal Cajetan? And where?
When did Luther have his formal debate with Johann Eck and where did this take place? Who did Eck successfully compare Luther with? What did this debate force Luther to do?
- 1519 at Leipzig
- Eck successfully identifies Luther with the 15th century heretic Jan Huss, who was burnt.
- He is forced to challenge the very foundations of the Church, including the authority of the Pope. It was here that Luther developed his doctrine of sola scriptura.
When did Pope Leo X excommunicate Luther? What did Luther do in retaliation?
- June 1520
- Luther publicly burns the papal bull and calls the Pope the Antichrist.
When did Luther publish his 3 pamphlets? Name the three pamphlets in order.
- Address to the Christian nobility of the German nation (Aug) - Luther calls upon the princes to undertake reform, also "priesthood of all believers".
- The Babylonish Captivity of the Church (Oct) - most controversial pamphlet, attacking the 7 sacraments.
- Of the Liberty of the Christian Man (Nov)
What does Melanchthon produce in 1521?
Loci communes - the first systematic statement of Lutheran beliefs. He wrote this in reaction to the radical take-over in Wittenburg by Karlstadt.
When was the Diet of Worms? What did Frederick secure for him prior to the meeting? What does Charles V do to Luther? What does Luther realise at this meeting?
- The Imperial safe conduct
- Charles outlaws Luther and bans his works
- Luther realises that Charles would not comrpomise.
Whilst Luther is safely in Wartburg castle, what is happening in Wittenburg between 1521 - 1522?
Karlstadt had assumed a lead role in Church government, leading a radical reform movement, including practicing iconoclasm.
After the Diet of Worms, what happens to Luther?
He is "kidnapped" by Frederick's men while returning, to be put harboured safely at Wartburg castle.
When does Karlstadt write the Wittenburg ordinance? What does Luther do on the same year?
- Luther returns to Wittenburg despite risking his life, and delivers the Wittenburg sermons.
When did Luther translate the New Testament into the vernacular version (German)?
- On sale by end of 1522
- During his time at Wartburg castle
When was Zwinli's Sausage Sunday?
When was the Imperial Knight's War? Who was it lead by?And with whom did they fight against in the name of Luther?
- Led by Ulrich von Hutten
- They latched onto the nationalistic elements of Luther's message and used it as an excuse to attack the lands of Archbishop of Trier.
When was the Peasants' Revolt?
When was the "manifesto" for change produced on behalf of the revolting peasants? What was this called and by whom was it mainly created?
- March 1525
- Called the Twelve Articles of Memmingem
- By Thomas Muntzer (who "led" the peasants)
Luther at first sympathises with the peasants, in which pamphlet? And then he switches sides and criticises the peasants in which pamphlet? What does he say in this?
- Sympathises with them in "Admonition to Peace" (1525).
- Criticises the peasants in his notorious pamphlet "Against the murdering, thieving hordes of Peasants" (1525) - in which he encourages the authorities to "smite and slay" the rebels.
When does Luther marry Catherine von Bora? What is she?
The first prince to commit to Lutheranism was who? When did he commit to it?
- Albrecht of Hohenzollern
Which cities were the first embrace reform in 1525?
Nuremberg, Bremen, Erfurt, Magdeburg.
When does Frederick die, and who succeeds him as Elector of Saxony?
- His brother John succeeds him.
When was the First Diet of Speyer? And describe briefly what was decided at the diet?
- In short, the princes could interpret the Edict of Worms as they wished. (remember, Charles was absent at the time)
- Church lands already taken remained secularised.
Which 2 other notable princes converted to Lutheranism following Albrecht of Hehenzollern and in what years?
- Philip of Hesse - 1526
- John of Saxony - 1527
What group was formed in 1526 by Lutheran princes? What was it in reaction of, and what was it designed to do?
- League of Torgau (led by Hesse and J of Saxony)
- In reaction to the League of Dessau formed by the Catholic princes the previous year.
- Designed to prevent implementation of Edict of Worms.
When did Luther publish the Large and Small Catechisms? Who were they made for?
- Published in German, and aimed at common man/children to access Lutheran doctrine.
Luther debates with Zwingli at which meeting and when? What do they fail to agree upon?
- At the Colloquy of Marburg
- In October 1529
- Failed to agree upon the true nature of the Eucharist.
When was the Second Diet of Speyer? What did Charles do? How many princes and cities protested against the Emperor?
- Charles overturned the 1526 Diet of Speyer and re-affirmed the Edict of Worms
- 6 Princes and 14 cities made a collective protest. Document of protestation signed by princes including Philip of Hesse, John of Saxony and Margrave of Brandenburg. The 14 cities included Strassburg.
When did the Ottomans reach the gates of Vienna?
What period in the 1520's was Charles absent from Germany?
From 1522 to 1529.