1. Average early childhood growth, height and weight?
    child's physical size and rate of growth, realitve to the groth of their parents. between the ages of two to six the child grows two to three inches as year, gain about five pounds, and their first tooth comes out at the end of year six, beginning of the sevnth.
  2. Handedness
    reflects the greater capacity of the side of the brain--the individual dominant cerebral hemisphere to carry out skilled motor actions.
  3. Preschoolers wariness of new foods.
    only eat what they know they can eat when parent's arent around.
  4. Helping preschooler's try new food
    offfer healthy new foods early in a meal and repeatedly at subsequent meals and respond with patience if the child rejects the food.

    Anger discourages them toward the healthy food.
  5. Milk Avoidance
    The tendencey to go for the sweet or sugary drinks instead of milk. Children follow those they admire, parents and peers.
  6. Percent of U.S. preschoolers not fully imunized
    Twenty Percent
  7. Children's use of safty seats.
    For the child's protection they should sat in a seat until they are eight years old and over one hundred pounds.
  8. Outcomes of otittis medea (ear infection)
    Freguent infections predit delayed language process in early childhood and poorer academic performance after school entry.
  9. Leading cause of death after age one
    Motor Vechiles
  10. Comparison of girls and boys motor skills
    boys are more risky then girls thus they need more guidance in safe play, but they tend to get into the most accidents.
  11. Fine motor progress
    improvement of hand and finger skills aloows children to hold crayons, scissors and slightly dress themselves.
  12. Preoperational Stage
    Between the years of two to seven the most obivious change is an increase of representational/symoblic play.

    Using a toy car as a razor.
  13. Mental Representation
    an interal depiction of information that the mind can manipulte.
  14. Sociodramtic Play
    An increase and more complex make-believe play with peers around the end of the age of two.
  15. "I don't want this toy to get lonely."
    That would follow under animistic. Giving life like qualites (thoughts, wishes etc) to objects.

    Teddy feels sad today.
  16. Conservation
    the idea that physical characteristis of an object is the dame after the apperance is changed.
  17. Zone of Proximal Development
    The level of learning that isn't too easy or hard. Relative to were the child is at mentally.
  18. Private Speech
    Also called "egocentic speech".

    Young children talk for themselves; often to help guide their own thinking and behavior. It's not meant for anyone but themselves.
  19. Piaget's disccovery learning styles
    Encouraged to discover for themsleves, through spontanous play.
  20. Vygotsky's style of classroom
    Children are taught with verbal prompts and demenstration. Working with them towards assisted discovery. (a group of children helping eachother learn and teach)
  21. Informal literacy experiences
    Daily actitivites that children watch or do that has to do with written symbols.

    Storybooks, lists, calenders, signs.
  22. Child Center Program
    Teachers provide activites from which the children select, and much learning takes place through play.
  23. Preschoolers self eestem
    They have trouble telling the difference between their actual complience and where they are at. They tend to rate themselves higher then they actually are, which if encouraged by parents gives them high self eestem.
  24. Self Eestem and Parental criticrism.
    If parents encourage and offer helpful information or help the child is more likely to have a high self eestem and be able to get through difficult task. Parents who cut down their childs abilty to do things ruin their self image
  25. Childs responds to friend losing a toy
    As the child grows it learns how to be sympathic for their friends
  26. Warm, sensitive parenting
    Preschoolers are more likely to follow the actions of an parent who is warm and responsive to a child. Warmth makes the child more receptive to the model and follow prosoical responses.
  27. Cooperative Play
    a more advanced type of interaction, children orient towards a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme.
  28. Associative Play
    Children engage in seperate activites but share toys and comments on each others behavior.
  29. Parallel Play
    A limited form of social participation in which a child plays next to another with similar material but does not try to influence the others behavior.
  30. Non Social Play
    Unoccupied, onlooker behavior, and solitary play.
  31. Preschool Friendships
    Preschoolers are just as quickly to give and take back friendships. They are twice are likely to give reinforcement, greetings, praise, complinance.
  32. Friendship and Kindergarten adjustment
    The ease with which a child makes friends and is self were to complete task.
  33. First stage of morality
    Childern develop ad concious and feel guilt after the adopt the morals of their parents, they don't want to lose their parents love.
  34. Parenting when a child is briefly out of control
    Call a time out. Put the child in their room and give you both some time to reflect on what the issue is and how you want to go about it.
  35. Effective use of punishment
    Consistency, a warm parent to child relationship, and a lot of explainations.
  36. Types of aggression
    Physical aggression-harms others through physical injury--pushing, hitting, kicking, or punishing others, or destorying another's property. Verbal aggression-harms others through threats of phsyical aggression, name calling or hostile teasing.
  37. Types of aggression
    Relational aggression-damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation
  38. What percent of U.S. TV programs voilent
    Fiftyseven percent
  39. What cataegory of TV programs are most violent
    By nine percent above average childern's programs are most voilent without punishment
  40. Outcome of children watching violent TV programs
    Children will be more hostile, and lean towards the more violent and hostile games and shows.
  41. Gender Typing
    refers to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or other ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.
  42. Common teacher gender bias about encouragement
    Teachers gives girls more encouragement because the pay more attention to direction and where as the boys want to take part in more play type of things.
  43. Authoritative parenting approach
    most successful involves high acceptence and involvement, adaptive control techniques.
  44. Authoritarian parenting approach
    is low in acceptence and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
  45. Permissive parents approach
    Is warm and accepting but uninvolved. Either overindulgent or inattentive and thus engaging in little control. Instead of gradual athourty they allow child to make chocies they are not yet read for.
Card Set
Chapters 8,9, 10