1. domestic horse latin
    Equus caballus
  2. donkey latin
    Equus asinus
  3. Horses' birthday
    January 1st
  4. Laminits
    wall of hoof no longer parallel with distal-most bone of limb
  5. How big is one hand?
    4 inches. (2.5 cm in an inch)
  6. Horses are measured from
    the ground (palmar surface) to the withers
  7. poll
    caudal to pinnae
  8. withers
    dorsal surface. Caudal neck
  9. Croup
    highest point of caudal dorsum (rear end)
  10. leg joints, top down.
    hip, stifle, hock (tarsus)[carpus/knee], fetlock, pastern
  11. difference between a dwarf and a mini
    mini is in proportion. Dwarf is out of proportion.
  12. Miniature size
    under 8 hands. American Miniature Horse--teeth are normal size, back legs longer than front.
  13. Pony size
    10-14 hands. Shetland Pony--Wide set eyes, relatively short limbs
  14. Light horse size
    14-17 hands. Thoroughbred. Powerful hindquarters, high-strung. (Tennessee Walker--rearward angle to rear limbs, Hanovarian)
  15. Draft horse size
    17-19 hands. Clydesdale. Long rounded muzzle, long hair over hooves. Stockier, legs thicker.
  16. Difference between hot and cold bloods
    • hot bloods (arabians, thoroughbreds) have a faster metabolism and bursts of energy.
    • cold bloods have slower metabolism and are steadier. (Draft horses)
    • warmbloods are a cross (Hanovarian)
  17. Hanovarian
    like a light horse but less muscled than a thoroughbred (not a sprinter)
  18. Baby horse
    foal. Born January 1st
  19. Nursing horse
  20. weaned horse
    weanling. Weaned at 3-6 months, usually.
  21. Male and female horses up to 2 years
    • colt-male
    • filly-female
  22. Intact male at two or three years old
  23. neutered male
  24. female at 2 or 3 years old
  25. one year old horse
  26. horse over 4 or 5
    aged or mature horse
  27. cross of a horse and a donkey
    mule. Sterile
  28. Donkey male and female
    Jack and Jenny
  29. Mule male and female
    mule and hinny
  30. Zebra latin and types
    Equus zebra. Grevy's (round ears) and Burchell's (pointy ears)
  31. Dressage
    formal form of riding, looks at beauty of form
  32. hunter/jumper competitions
    obstacle courses, speed, agility
  33. Turf racing
    on grass
  34. soil racing
    on dirt. Kentuky derby
  35. Gait for harness racing
    trot. Done with little cart called sulky
  36. dangers of racing
    • dehydration - can lose 2 gallons of sweat per hour. Lathering.
    • hyperthermia--fever when exercising or under anesthesia
    • Monday morning disease, or "tying up"--super sore muscles after a hard run and a day off.
  37. walk
    4 beats, equal time between steps
  38. trot
    two beats, diagonal legs hit ground simultaneously
  39. pace
    two beats, legs on same side hit ground together, faster than a trot. This is the natural gait of standardbreds.
  40. gallop
    fastest gait. 4 beats, not symmetrical. first foot is the lead. All four off the ground at one time.
  41. Estrus
    horses are seasonally polyestrus. every 21 days in spring and summer.
  42. Broodmare
    pregnant female. "in foal"
  43. pregnancy time
    11 months.
  44. waxing
    when colostrum appears on tips of nipples just before foaling.
  45. foal heat
    heat 7-12 days after foal is born. Next heat 21 days later
  46. maiden
    a mare who has not yet had a foal or a horse that has not yet won a race.
  47. progeny
  48. provide sperm
    stand at stud
  49. teaser
    horse that tests to see if a mare is in heat
  50. Box stall
    large enough for the horse to turn around in
  51. tie/standing stall
    horse can't move around.
  52. horse diet
    monogastric herbivore. cecal digestion of mostly fiber with some fruit and grains. LOTS of water. a 1000 lb horse needs 5-10 gallons of water a day.
  53. horses teeth
    hypsodont--keep growing through life. Can overgrow if jaw not lined up.
  54. wolf tooth
    small sharp tooth with no purpose. Usually removed.
  55. floating teeth
    to file off the points where they don't meet up properly (hypsodont)
  56. buccal surface
    cheek side of tooth
  57. lingual surface
    tongue side of tooth
  58. halter
    face-collar to catch and hold horse
  59. lead
    halter with rope
  60. twitch
    twist of rope around upper lip, applies enough pressure to release endorphins and relax animal.
  61. laminitis stance
    legs wide apart, neck forward, head down, pelvic limbs straight up
  62. laminae
    tissues that support the wall of the hoof
  63. horseshoes
    can be metal or rubber. There are corrective shoes for laminitis. Can fix split hoof with nails and wire.
  64. Ectoparasites
    outside body
  65. endoparasites
    inside body
  66. Bots
    endoparasite. Fly larvae.
  67. Strongyles
    endoparasite. GI worm.
  68. Horse vaccines
    rabies, tetanus, Eastern or Western Encephalomyelitis and West Nile Disease (neuorologic diseases), Rhinopneumonitis/influenza, Equine viral arteritis (often fatal viral inflammation of arteries)
  69. Equine Infetious Anemia (EIA)
    mosquitos or biting flies spread. Coggins test identifies. Test required at horse shows. Treatment is quarantine or euthanasia.
  70. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    heaves. Get heave line. Usually from allergies or viral disease. Seen in race horses.
Card Set
vet tech test 1 equines