What are the 4 distinguishing traits of Jesuits?
- wrote constitutions not rules; they govern and order but unique to thwat Ignatius saw in Society of Jesus
- not required to wear any garments (wanted them to be flexible and confortable)
- not required to come each day to chorale (flexible to go where they were needed)
- vow of special obedience to Pope served at Pope's pleasure in terms of service.
what is the spritual foundaiton for all jesuits?
why were jesuits supressed in 1767?
- chinese rights controversy (preached saints in the context of chiese own experience of ancestor and veneration; word was jesuit was sending down pagan practices)
- reductions: Jesuits organized indigenous indians, helped them create culture, Spanish spread rumors that Jesuits were sitting on gold
- pure jealousy (influence on wealthy)
why were the theological doctrines that grounded the exercises?
trinity, incarnation, Mary, and importance of creation (the created order is how we will discover God in our lives)
What was the difference and similarity between the novel ignatius read before and after his injury
before he was wounded, he read romance novels, about chivalry, defending the fair maidens against the great evils, read the lives of saints which fed his romantic memory, doing great things for Christ
what did Ignatius wanted to do after reading Lives of Saints?
- do what they did and even exceed them in their heroic deeds
- from romantic to religious devotion
What was the influence of Ludolph's Life of Christ?
- more formal, organized toward serving God's greater glory
- it was a form of practical mysticism: very concrete about how one ought to live out one's life, it was almost a how to manual
- exercises unfold like the Life of Christ; one's prayer life leading to one's salvation and development of one's prayer life
What meditation is foundational for the whole exercises?
Principle and Foundation
What shaped Ignatis and what he is suppose to do is oriented toward three things. What are they and explain.
- knowing, loving and serving
- know God better, know God through each other, and God is to be found in all things, loving God and each other and the world, falling in love with creation; loving is a form of knowing, loving on is knowing that there is more in it that we don't understand, always wanting to know more who this person is. You can't love anything unless you first know it
- serving each other, servant to all, serving what it is that God wants us to do. If you want to be true to yourself, whatever you do with your life, you're authentically serving
- Knowing, loving and serving opens up possibility to glorify God in a myriad of ways
How did reading Life of Christ and lives of saints impact ignatius?
ignatius found consolidation, found desolation in the old novels he read; begin to think about discernment; movements in interior life, point you toward God, toward what the authenic human life looks like, and desolation moves you away from God. he was being moved in a particular way
What were the three places where Ignatius found great insights?
- Manresa: God taught him like schoolmaster, learned the do's and don'ts, learned that he shouldn't starve himself in extreme penances; need to find the property mean, beginning of formation of spiritual exercises
- cordinare River: saw the trinity; God infused the understanding of the trinity in him
- la sorta: I shall be propitious to you, experience being placed at Christ, solidified understanding of himself and the men gathered around him
What is mysticism and what are two types of mysticism?
- overwhelmed by something greater than oneself
- intellectual: view into mysticism from God he couldn't get himself (ignatius experienced)
- cloud of unknowning, one knows that God exists, but he can't really give an acocunt of it, transcends human communicating capacities
What is role of discernment?
understand what is authentic from God and what isn't
What is the breakdown of the exercises?
- first week: sin in the world
- second: life of christ, longest, figure out who He is that you want to serve, meditation on Christ the King
- third: Christ suffering and death, immerse in experience of Christ cruxification, death; He came to do these things for you so that you may become freer
- last: resurrection and God's love, undersatnd that God loves us and what God wants for us; Obtaining divine love. mediate on the way God is working overtime to love you; everything God is working to love you. God is helping us understand our deepest desires; God wants what we want, we need to figure out what we want
what is the purpose of Ignatius's exercises?
help everyone become freer in their capcity to make choices before God. Set the condtiont o free you pu from anything that gets in the way of choosing how God want you to live your life. Help you become a faithful Christian, to love Christ more fully. discern our deepest desires, to help us become who we are suppose to be, to see how desires get in the way of us responding to the way in which we are called to serve. Exercises help us discern our deepest desires
What is the purpose of Pascal's Pensee?
defense of the Christian religion; call of skeptics and stoics and unbelievers to embrace God
what does Pascal believe about human left to himself?
human left to himself will be left to be blind and utter corruption, only through grace can one be saved
what does Pascal think of customs and human reason?
customs are agreements of arbitary rules, doesn't come out of first principles, cultures set up norms and meanings over time; don't have foundations; our reason is corrupted (like Luther who thought reason is corrupted)
What does Pascal think of human beings as? (analogy) Who does he have in mind?
thinking reed: easily get blown around, easily moved by elements, can break them, easily uprooted; humans are influence by their passions. has Descartes in mind: Descartes thinks we can control our thoughts, find foundations to determine what is true. pascal says we cannot control our passions and thoughts
What does Pascale think of human reason?
Though we have the capacity to reason, we shouldn't be so full of ourselves; hubris thinking that we have this power to control our thoughts. Senses cloud the reason. Human fragility
What are man's contradictions?
Men is great and wretched. Source of greatness: knowing that we're wretched, we know we're wretched because we are going to die. Only through grace, we can save ourselves and the fact that we are going to die
What is the difference btw pascal and descartes?
Descartes: men can rationalize all things, solve all problems and prove God's existence. Pascal: limitations of reason, becuase we are fallen, need grace
What is revelation?
God's revelation in human history; God reveals things that surpasses our knowledge, like the trinity. Descartes: don't need revelation. pascale need both faith and revelation
What is the source of our wretchedness?
comes from this time where we had this nobility; nobility was lost at our fall, fallen from some better state that was once our own; we live by our passions now like animals rather than the things highest to us.
not good to be too free, not good to hav all one needs
be enslaved to your passions, have nothing higher to strive for. need well ordered freedom (st. augustine: love God and do what you will), we will never be satisfied with the things of this life
what have we lost in our lives according to Pascal?
since our reason is corrupted everything is corrupted; no univsersal sense of justice; each culture has its own sense of justice; we think that our laws are normative to everyone outside our country; we have lost capacity to judge what is good, the normative way to think about justice to every country. People are marred by sin and they can't understand what is the good that should be understood.
what makes us great? Angelism?
- our knowledge, reason makes us great
- with reason and grace, we will know what is true
- great b/c we are made in God's image
- something higher for us to realize
- reason will separate us from lower animals
- knowing that we are wretched
- angelism in the body: angel is what frees you from your earthly contraints and bodily limitations
- beastiasity: wretchedness taken to its worst extreme
- we will die
- we are fallen and need God to save
- fragile, enslaved to our passions
What is the problem with angelism and beastiality?
angelism separates the body from the soul; we are not made up of separate things, the totality of who we are are raised on the last day, fullenss of your soul is present in every part of the body. Angelism denies that boyd and soul is united, hurbris is the problem; shame and despair is the problem in bestiality (focusing on wretchedness denies what is highest in us, spirituality, denies that it needs to be part of us).
What is diversion?
Keep youself on the move so you don't think about mortality, fact that the present moemnt is the only time we have, future is not realized, past is gone. Diversion keep on changing, hunted self becomes the most important, we get what we want it becomes boring, its the chase that matters. When we get what we want, we don't want to face how empty it leaes us. We are restless, but we don't want to think about what we are restless for.
Explain the wager.
- Making a bet whether God exists or not. Everything to lose if you are wrong; lose the ability to live by something higher (salvation) and allowed passions to dominate
- wager that God doesn't exist, live piously, you realize God exists, lose nothing, gain salvation and living by what is highest in us
it is the conscience decision to wager. Our lives are filled with bets, why don't you make the bet that God exists (wager is for fencesitters). If you are opening up the question if God exists, you are already thinking about faith
What did Roussea have in common with Locke, Hobbes, and Roussesau?
- gives us another stae of nature argument
- law of self-preservation is most important (self-centered) wicked
- men are not social by nature; we are motivated by fulfilling our desires
how does Rousseau think differently about reason than Hobbes and Locke?
Rousseau thinks reason is more instinctual, that capcity to help us avoid harm, not fully formed on calculations that we need to give us pleasure and pain
What is Rousseau's state of nature like?
- nobility to our animality; noble savages
- pity are natural laws, prevents us from harming each other
- no culture, no relationships, no language, strong and healthy
How did Rousseau's state of nature come about?
natural incidences that happen that causes us to change, most importnat to satisfy our desires, when we can't and someone walks by who can, when others help, we become dependent, leads to language to communicate what we want. Shift out of state is accidental, once this happens, organization happens
how do families form according to Rousseau? then what happens?
- no parent in state of nature
- family is the first form of relationship, first social unit, family develops for two reasons: women agree to give up their independence for the sake of children 2) objects of men's sexual desire is at hand. Then love, jealousy and hatred emerges
How did civil society come about?
when someone encloses a plot of land and said this is mine
What is Rousseau's main problem with civil society?
corrupts human moral; we are enslaved to our passions, we are free in state of nature; free will separated us from animals in state of nature; we can choose against a desire, pass up our desire for sex. Civil soceity unleashes our passions. Main problem: we are living in the opinion of others, constant need for others to approve
What is the difference in inequality in state of nature and society?
natural inequality in state of nature, inequality in society is artifical based on the opinion of those who has power, money and talent. If you want to be happy,you have to have these talents; happiness is the satisfaction of one's desires. We end up comparing ourselves to those with these natural talents. We surrendered our freedom to keep up with the jones, to be what society wants us to be, enslaved our passion, need more and more because we feel less and less. concerned with self-image and self esteem, make us sickly, weak, imprisoned.
What is the difference between locke and Rousseau's idea of a poormen?
Locke says that the poorest Englishmen is better than indians. Rousseau says that if you are poor, you ahve no resource or power, you have to go along with what the rich says or you will find yourself on the outskirts. Civil society reinforces the gap between rich and poor
What is the function of law according to Roussea?
powerful to get what they want at the expense of those who cannot
What is the contradictions in the Social contracts?
Men are free yet everywhere he is in chains
What is the general will in the social cotract?
the common good, everyone participates in voting, following your will, so you are free in society. You are following the laws, but you are doing your will, chained but free
what is the role of religion in the social contract?
help set moral orientations, religion is fine as long as it does not interfere with government, doesn't alienate your affections for the social contract
What is the purpose of the social contract?
- recover things lost when we moved out of state of nature
- answer two questions:
- 1)why should I obey anyone just as self interested as me? Answered in general will
- 2)how can we get people to get themselves to sacrifice for the good of the city. Answer civil religion
Why do people follow the sovereign in Locke and Hobbes?
- Hobbes: follow sovereign b/c you are scared, not a free assent to sovereign; dont' do it freely
- Locke: follow sovereign bc he mediate power for us, political power is alienated for Locke; we fear losing property
What is civic religion?
- religion that is for the good of the whole
- religion in general explains how we got here, is there anything more than this, what is my purpose
- rituals, relgious symbols shape our feelings of love
- function of civil society is to make you love your city; loving the city is the highest orientation of your heart
- using patriotism, parades, civil religion will affect our feelings and get men to sacrifice themsleves through love of all. Civil religion is to think about what it means to be free.
social contract help us become what?
moral beings; laws for Lokce and Hobbes were oriented towards self-interests and desires, Rousseau sees laws as for the common good, which is greater than our self interests and desires. We can subject our interests to the common will, contrary to our desires, give up things that tempts us
what is the dark side of the freedom in social contract?
If you don't choose what is the general will, you will be forced to be free, the voice of the people that need to be heard is not heard
what is the will of all?
Will of all is the sum of all the private interests
What is freedom in the social contract?
choosing soemthing that may be other than what you want
what are the assumptions made in the social contract?
we have a good understanding of ourselves, know ourselves to the extent that when community votes for the common good, it chooses the common good.
what is common good?
experience of choosing contrary to what is beneficial to you.
what is the good and bad in social contract? What does Rousseau develop in this way that is similar to one of the ancients?
good if it helps the comongood, bad if it mutilates that. Rousseau has a good state and good citzens: kind of like plato, men and women as sovereigns acting in the common good, choosing contracy to one's own desires
how are we chained?
by our passions and indirect democracy
what is the importance of censorship?
Proper to shape our feelings, limit those things that will distract us;
What is different in Rousseau and Locke and Hobbes?
Roussea has a small city state in mind, Hobbes has a big one. R is the first modern to think about an ethics over and above what is in there for me. Mercenary ethics in Hobbes and Locke. R tries to recover the ancient virtues that were part of the republic, allow individuals to govern themselves
what is Rousseau's problem with arts and sciences?
human reason can solve all problems, continuation of progress, things get better and better; enlightenment. Nature has to be beaten, most important is comfort. continue to erode the warrier side of humans, ends of to thesmlves. lose are primordial forms of human expression.