Bio for mad.

  1. What is the half-life of carbon?
    5730 years
  2. What is the oldest range of carbon 14 dating?
    75,000 years
  3. How many years ago was the cretaceous period ending?
    65 million years ago
  4. What percent of bubbles are on the surface?
    5%
  5. If the primordial soup is flawed why does the bubble model work?
    The water absorbs the ultraviolet light is absorbed by water allowing the five chemicals to bond to the bubble.
  6. Why are microspheres like cells?
    They have a permeable membrane, they have a lipid bilayer, and could store and release energy.
  7. What was the first replicating molecule?
    RNA
  8. Why do they think RNA was the first replicating molecule?
    Because it only had one strand, it was more simple.
  9. What was the first photosynthetic bacteria?
    Algae
  10. What happended first when photosynthesis created oxygen?
    Oxygen mixed with iron, forming iron oxide. This turned the ocean brown. It "rusted" the ocean.
  11. When was the first mass extinction?
    When oxygen became present.
  12. Where can you find descendants aerobic descendants?
    At Waller Park in and under the mud.
  13. Scientist who specialize in the study of fossils are called:




    C) b) paleontologists
  14. Sedimentary rocks form when layers of small particles are compressed:




    A) under water
  15. Earth's first atmosphere contained little or no:




    C) oxygen
  16. In Miller's exeriment with the origin of life-forms, electric sparks were passed through a mixture of gases to:




    C) stimulate lightning
  17. Outlines of ancient cells that are preserved well enough to identify them as prokaryotes are:




    C) microfossil
  18. What are the four eras?
    Precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoic, and cenozoic (present)
  19. The endosymbiotic theory includes all of the following except:




    B) Aerobic prokaryotes evolved into mtochondria
  20. What does the fossil record provide?
    • 1) Evidence about the history of life on Earth
    • 2) How different the groups of organisms have changed over time
  21. What are the two methods paleontologists use for finding the age of fossils?
    Relative dating and Radioactive dating
  22. What is radioactive dating?
    Radioactive elements decay into nonradioactive elements at a steady rate which indicates the age allowing scientists to assign absolute age.
  23. Once an organism dies, what happens to the carbon-14?
    It begins to decay to form nitrogen.
  24. What is the most common isotope?
    Carbon-12, it is not radioactive and does not decay. When comparing C-14 and C-12 scientist can detrmine when the organism lived.
  25. What is a geological time scale?
    A scale used by paleontologists to represent evolutionary times.
  26. How did Earth form?
    Scientist hypothesize that cosmic debris was attracted to one another over about 100 million years
  27. What forms the planets core?
    The most dense elements.
  28. What forms the surface and atmosphere?
    Moderately dense elements form surface and the least dense elements (hydrogen and nitrogen) formed the atmosphere.
  29. Life on Earth is hypothesized into three theories...what are they?
    Divine creation, Spontaneous origin, and extraterrestrial origin.
  30. Why can't divine creation be explained?
    It can not be tested using a scientific method so it falls on the outside realm of science.
  31. In spontaneous origin, scientist think life on Earth developednby...?
    Natural chemcal and physical processes
  32. Changes that increased the stability of cartain molecules wpuld have allowed what?
    Molecules to persist for a longer time
  33. Molecules that could be replicatd would have become what?
    More common than those that could not.
  34. Nonliving matter (methane, ammonia....)-chemical reactions (AA,FA, HC)-simple organic matter- chemical reactions- self-replicating molecules- origin of life ????- organisms
  35. In Oparin's Primordial Soup model, how were chemical reactions supposedly started?
    Volcanic eruptions, solar radiation, and lightning
  36. Who tested Oparin's model?
    Stanley Miller
  37. What is our Earth's main gases and what are their percentages?
    Nitrogen 79.9% ; Oxygen 20%
  38. Who created the bubble model?
    Louis Lerman
  39. Is water polar or non-polar?
    Polar
  40. What is the Big Bang Theory?
    The theory that there was a gigantic explosion with los of cosmic debris (gases: nitrogen) and that the universe formed.
  41. What are three main points to know about the Big Bang theory?
    It happened 15 billion years ago. Earth is still expanding. It had gas and debris.
  42. What supposedly formed first in the Big Bang theory?
    The sun, then the cloud became oval, and then the earth and other planets formed.
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Anonymous
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143402
Card Set
Bio for mad.
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review chapter 17
Updated