Botany: Heredity

  1. Reproduction
    production of offspring
  2. Sexual Reproduction
    haploid gametes (produced by meiosis) from two individuals come together to form a zygote
  3. Asexual Reproduction
    A single individual may split, bud, or fragment giving rise to genetically identical offspring. Mitosis produces diploid cells.
  4. Meiotic Division: First Division
    • crossing over occurs
    • separation of chromosome pairs (matching maternal and parternal chromosomes paired, then split)
    • HAPLOID cells produced
  5. Meiotic Division: Second Division
    • sister chromatids separated
    • no crossing over, no chromosome pairing
    • cells produces with 2 chromatids each.
  6. Gametes
    Haploid cells for sexual reproduction
  7. Zygote
    Diploid combination of two gametes
  8. Fertilization
    fusion of male and female gametes
  9. Selfing
    when two of one individual's gametes combine
  10. Outcrossing
    When one plant is pollinated with pollen from another individual
  11. Homologous Chromosome
    A member of a chromosome pair that is similar in size, shape, and genetic constitution to it's match.
  12. Sister chromatid
    A chromatid from the same chromosome that was split.
  13. Gene
    A discrete unit of hereditary information that usually specifies a polypeptide (protien)
  14. Allele
    One of two or more alternative forms of a gene
  15. Locus
    A gene's location on the chromosome
  16. Genotype
    The alleles an individual has
  17. Phenotype
    the expressed alleles
  18. Dominant v Recessive
    Dominant will be expressed over recessive. Recessive is only expressed in the absence of the dominant allele.
  19. Principle of dominance
    When two alternative forms of the same gene are present in an individual, often only one is expressed.
  20. Principle of Segregation
    When gametes form in meiosis, the alleles of each gene (found on homologous chromosomes) separate from each other. Each gamete recives 1 allele from each gene.
  21. Principle of Independant Assortment
    When two or more characters are examined in a single cross, each character is inherited without relation to the other.
  22. Monohydrid Cross
    A cross with individuals only differing in 1 trait
  23. Dihybrid cross
    a cross involving individuals differeing in two characters (at two loci)
  24. Testcross
    A cross to determine an individual's genotype
  25. Homozygous
    Individual has two matching alleles
  26. Heterozygote
    Individual has two different alleles
  27. Incomplete Dominance
    a condition in which neither member of a pair of contrasting alleles is completely expressed.

    (a heterozygote with a phenotype that is an intermediate of the parents' is produced.)
  28. Multiple Alleles
    When more than 2 alleles for a trait exist
  29. Discrete Trait
  30. Quantitative triat
  31. Polygenic Inheritance
    2 or more pairs of genes affect a trait in an additive fashion.
Card Set
Botany: Heredity
basics for botany test 3, heredity