What was the basic social group of the bedouin people?
kin-related clan groups.
leaders of bedouin clans
What clan was responsible for the foundaiton of Mecca?
The religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce in preIslamic Mecca was the
Who ruled Medina prior to Muhammad's flight there?
several Jewish and bedouin clans
Prior to Muhammad's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was
a mixture of animism and polytheism
What was the date of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina?
Which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is not correct?
A. He fled because of the threat of assassination in Mecca.
B. He fled because he was invited to mediate a dispute between the tribes of Medina.
C. Muhammad's clansman Ali was crucial in his safe passage to Medina.
D. Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population.
E. Once in Medina he attracted new followers to his faith.
Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population.
The Islamic umma was
the concept of community of the faithful that transcended clan boundaries
The religious practiced that are incumbent on all Muslims are referred to as the
"five pillars of faith"
The responsibility of all Muslims to make a pilgrimage to Mecca is called the
The Ridda Wars were fought
to suppress rival prophets and to restore the unity of Islam.
Which of the following statements concerning the resistance of the Byzantine Empire to Islamic attacks is most accurate?
C. The Byzantine Empire was more resilient than the Sasanian Empire, but still suffered the loss of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine to the Arabs.
The theological and political faction that supported the Umayyad concept of succession within Islam were the
What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire?
Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire.
Unlike the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire
admitted the mawali as full members of the Islamic community.
During the Abbasid period, slavery
was typical of unskilled occupations in the countryside and the cities.
The religion that arose from the revelations of Muhammad was __________.
The recitations of revelations received by Muhammad were recorded in the __________, the Islamic holy book.
Islam spread first among the __________, nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula.
The __________ were tribal and clan leaders within bedouin society.
The site of the Ka'ba and original home of Muhammad, __________ was located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea in the Arabian peninsula.
Yathrib or __________ became the refuge of Muhammad after his flight from Mecca.
The tribe that dominated Mecca was the __________.
The clan within the Quraysh that controlled the political and commercial life of Mecca was the __________.
One of the most revered shrines in pre-Islamic Arabia, the __________ was eventually incorporated into Islam as a sacred site.
The supreme god of Islam was __________.
The Prophet of Islam was __________, whose revelations were recorded in the Quran.
The __________ or community of the faithful in Islam transcended old tribal boundaries.
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims, the __________, were confession of the faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj.
Once in his lifetime, the devout Muslim must undertake __________, a pilgrimage to worship Allah at the Ka'ba.
The __________ was the religious and political leader in Islam following the death of Muhammad.
Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law __________ was the focus for the Shi'ites.
__________ was the first Caliph after Muhammad's death.
The conflicts following Muhammad's death in 632 that resulted in the defeat of rival prophets were the __________ Wars.
__________ was the concept of Islamic holy war.
The third Caliph, __________, was a member of the Umayyad clan who was murdered.
The forces of Ali and the Umayyads confronted each other at the Battle of __________.
The first Umayyad Caliph after the defeat of Ali was __________.
Ali's son Husayn was defeated and killed at __________.
The __________ supported the Umayyads in the dispute over control of the caliphate.
The __________ continued to support descendants of Ali even after the death of Husayn.
The capital of the Umayyad empire was at __________.
Non-Arab converts to Islam were called __________.
_________ were literally "people of the book," usually either Christians or Jews.
The dynasty that followed the Umayyads was the _____dynasty
Located in Iraq near the ancient capital of Ctesiphon, __________ was the capital of the Abbasid empire.
Initially recruited from the Persian residents of Iraq, the __________ were the chief administrative officers of the Abbasid empire.
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of the Abbasid rule were the __________.