Pharmacology 16

  1. antibiotics can broken into 2 spectrums
    broad and narrow
  2. which bacteria is more dangerous, gram negative or gram positive?
    • gram negative
    • pts often get worse before they get better
    • hard outer wall of gram negatives release toxins when ruptured
  3. allergies and antibiotics
    • allergic reactions are common
    • repeated exposure sensitizes bodies defense mechanisms
    • may cause mild rash or more severe reacations
  4. Name the groups of antibiotics
    • penicillin
    • cephalosporin
    • tetracycline
    • macrolide
    • quinolone
    • sulfonamide
  5. Which antibiotic agent was the first one discovered?
    • penicillin
    • mulitiple variations avaliable now... G variations and V
  6. Semisynthetic pencillin
    • broader spectrum
    • greater effectiveness with oral administration
  7. side effects of using penicillins
    • abdominal cramping and diarrhea
    • monilia (candida) overgrowth may cause oral thrush as well as vaginal and perineal infection
  8. penicillin G
    • combats syphilis
    • must be injected IM
    • useful for respiratory infections
    • prophylaxis against group B strep
  9. penicillin V
    • derivative of penicillin g
    • can be taken orally
    • respiratory infections
    • cutaneous anthrax
    • gingivitis
    • prevents rheumatic fever
  10. if you are allergic to penicillin which antibiotic are you likely to be allergic to as well?
  11. cephalosporin
    • developed from mold
    • interferes with bacteria cell wall formation
    • cross-sensitivity associated with penicillin (25% chance)
    • can cause GI upset and skin rash
    • as generations increase they become more effective against gram negative bacteria
  12. which generation of cephalosporin is more effective against gram negative bacteria, first-generation or fourth-generation?
  13. tetracycline agents
    • broad spectrum
    • usually given orally
    • effective against repiratory and soft tissue infections
    • treats rickettsia
    • treats chlamydia
    • treats mycoplasma infections
    • treats lyme diseas and rocky mountain spotted fever
  14. which antibiotic generic ends in "cycline"
    tetracycline agents
  15. Why should tetracycline agents not be given to pregnant women and children younger than 8?
    tooth discoloration
  16. Name the antibiotic given to a pt with a pencillin allergy
    erythromycin (macrolide)
  17. erythromycin/macrolide
    • bacteriostatic
    • narrow spectrum
    • effective against gram postives
    • used orally
    • treats upper and lower respiratory infections
    • usually used for community-acquired pneumonia
    • generics end in -mycin
  18. quinolone
    • bacteriocidal
    • given orally
    • bacteria quickly develop resistance
    • effective against respiratory, GI and STDs
    • completely synthetic
    • used after older antibiotics are ineffective
    • long half-life (beware renal and liver pts)
    • more effecitve as serum concentration increases
  19. which generic antibiotic ends in -ofloxacin?
  20. What is a major side effect of many antibiotics?
    • hearing loss (ototoxicity)
    • ususally happens with aminoglycosides
    • those antibiotics reserved for serious infections by gram negatives
  21. sulfonamides
    • synthetics that resemble a bacterial enzyme (PABA)
    • taken orally
    • must have adequate fluid intake may form crystals in kidney
    • treats uti and haemophilus influenzae
    • interferes with digoxin and phenytoin
    • may petentiate warfarin and antidiabetic agents
  22. antifungal adminstration techniques
    • vaginal creams/suppositories
    • swish and swallow
    • IV
  23. Common antifungal drugs
    • miconazole
    • nystatin
  24. fungal infections can be life threatening for pts with....
    impaired immune systems
  25. why are viruses hard to kill?
    • they develop an intimate host relationship
    • hard to kill virus w/o harming the body
  26. antivirals treat...
    • hepatitis a, b, c
    • flu
    • AIDS
    • herpes
  27. The progression of AIDS and drug-treatment decisions are based on which 2 mechanisms?
    • viral load
    • CD4 cell count
  28. antivirals usually end in which suffix?
Card Set
Pharmacology 16
antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic