Food Prep

  1. Meal management
    • crating a successful meal is satifiying boht phychologically and phsiologically
    • requires: food prep, nutrition, presentation strategies
  2. Food Service organization
    • structured set up to acheive specific goals
    • division of work; management, necessitaties clear, effective job descritption
  3. Organizational Chart ( food service organization)
    • desriptice diagram showing the administrative struture of an organization
    • contribution to organization
    • job description contributes to overall flow
  4. Commercial Foodservice (food service organization)
    divide kitchens into various prperation areas requiring people with specific skills
  5. Escoffiers system of oganization via station
    • sauce cheff/saucier: highest
    • fish cook/poissonier
    • vegetable cook/potager
    • roast cook/ rotisseur
    • broilier/ grillardin
    • pantry chef/chef garde manager
    • pastry chef/patissier
    • relief, swing or round cook/ tournant
  6. Executive/chef executif :Administrative positions (commercial foodservice organization)
    in charge of the entire operation ,hiring,purchasing, sheduling etc
  7. Production Manager/ sous Chef
    in charge of all areas of production and supervision of the staff
  8. Hospital food service organization
    • many larger hospitals operation are professionally managed by sodexo corporation
    • person in charge is typically the food service director, or the cheif dietician
  9. Meal planning
    • the utimate goal of a food service organizaition
    • plan,prepare,serve meals
  10. Meal Planning USDA Menu Pattern
    • Adult car meal
    • child care
    • school lunch programs guidlines
  11. Meal Planning hospital menu patterns
    • patients have various nutritional need
    • responibilit of the dietary department to assess these need and make sure they are provided
  12. Meal Planning School lunch Programs Guidlines(USDA)
    • four food components
    • meat/meat alternative
    • vegetables/and or fruits
    • grains/breads
    • milk
  13. Nutrient standard menu planning
    • based on nutrietn groups
    • lunch should provide about 1/3 of daily calores and recommended daily
    • allowances for protein,iron,calcium, and vitamins A&C
  14. Creating the Menu Types of menus
    • no choice
    • limited choice
    • choice menu
  15. Creating the menu cycle menus
    • crating several weekly menuse in arow
    • common infoodservice
    • 3 week cycles improve cost
    • 4 week cycles less monotonous
  16. Purchaisng Budget limitations
    determine the types and amounts of food that can be purchased
  17. purchasing food cost
    • the cost of food purchased , often as a percentage
    • accounts for about half of all costs other half incurred by labor
  18. Purchasing buyers
    • large food service operations
    • determins food need, vendors, bargains for price contracts
  19. Purchasing Specifications
    • descriptice information used in food purchasing that defines the minimum and maximum levels of acceptable qulaity or quantity
    • ex: grade, weight,size, fresh or frozen
  20. Purchasing Supermarketers
    meats ,produce, dairy, bakery ,frozen, canned, processed foods, nonfood items
  21. Purchasing Wherhouse store
    less expensive thatn supermarkets because they offer the basic foods without the glitz
  22. Pruchasing Co-Ops
    • membership arrangement that cuts out the middle , retail level by purchasing food in bulk at wholesale prices to sell to members
    • profits are divided amont the co-op
    • tend to offer limited choices
  23. Purchasing Smaller Outlets
    • convenience , specialty, and health food stores
    • farmers markets
  24. ?
    supply food for foodservice establishments
  25. Pruchasing Meats
    • the biggest expence in the food budget
    • reduce daily meat intake no more than 5oz
    • less tender cuts are just as nutritious,often less fatty , and less expensive
    • non meat substitutions provide inexpensive protein options
    • ex: dried beans, peas, and lentils, eggs
  26. Purchasing Fish
    frozen or canned is less expensive than fresh
  27. Purchasing Dairy
    • nonfat dried milk is the least expensive form of milk
    • shredded and pre-sliced cheese is more expensive than block cheese
  28. Purchasing bread/grains
    • the more processing that is involved in the product, the hogher the cost will be
    • pre-prepared foods are more expensive thatn ones made from scratch
  29. Purchasing Fuits and vegetables
    depends on seasonal availability , brand,grade, added ingredients,
  30. Purchasing Reducing Wast saves cost
    • over purchasing perishable produce or other food
    • losses resulting from food prep
    • losses from shinkage during cooking
    • losses from plate wast
  31. Purchasing A Purchased (AP)
    the total amount of food purchased prior to any prep
  32. Edible Portion (EP) Purchasing
    food in its raw state, minus that which is discarded- bones ,fat,skins, seeds
  33. Purchasing Percentage Yield:
    • the ratio of edible food as purchased
    • edible food = food as purchased minus inedible or wasted food
  34. Purchasing Portion Control
    • cruvial to adhere to set portion sizes
    • three ways of measuring portions
    • weight volume
    • number
    • size
  35. Time Managements Cordination
    is key to an organizations providing timely meal servie
  36. Time management Estimating time
    items are prepared in descending order
  37. Time management eddicient meal Prep
    • planning the menu
    • developing a puchase list
    • purchasing the food
    • planning the order in
    • preparing the food
    • surving
    • cleaning up
  38. Time management Recipes
    • Dicritptive
    • standard
    • action
    • narrative
  39. Time management Standard Recipe
    • a food service or reipe that is a set of instruction describing how a particular dish is prepared by a specific establishment
    • ensures consistent , quantity, portio/cost control
  40. Types of Meal Service Russian Service
    • most formal type of meal
    • served in courses
    • salad, soup, fish, sorbet, main cousres with salad, dessert
  41. Types of Meal service Crumbing
    a ceremonious procedure of russian service , using a napkin or silver cumber, bruchses
  42. Types of Meal Service French Service(cart service)
    • food is brought out on a cart
    • prepared or completed by a chef at the table
    • very formal
  43. Types of Meal service English
    • waiters bring the various courses, clear table approbiat times
    • servings dished out by the host and hostess to individual guest
  44. Types of Meal Service American
    meal is placed on the plates in the kitchen and brought out to the table
  45. Types of Service Family
    • guests serve themselves from serving platters and bowls broght to the table and passed counterclockwise
    • desser i at the table
  46. Types of Service Buffet
  47. Types Of Meal Service Table settings
    • cover and linens
    • cover: place mat, flatware,dishes, and glasses
  48. Types of Meal Service Flatware/Dinnerwear/glassware
    • flatware: eating and serving utensils
    • assigned positions
  49. Types of Meal Service Accesories
    • distibuted attractively
    • ex: slat, peper, sugar, butter dish, bread baskets etc
  50. Types of Meal service Center Pieces
  51. Vegetables
  52. Classification of Vegetables
    classified by the part of the plant used a s a vegetable
  53. Fuits
    • part of the plant that contains its seeds
    • mature ovaries of plants
    • derived from flower usually a fruit
  54. fruit masquerading as vegetables
    tomatoes, squash , cucumbers, avocados, okra, eggplant, olives, water chestnuts,peppers
  55. Cell Wall
    • each plant cell has sturdy cell wall
    • fibrous compounds streghen
    • indigestible by humans cant breakdown cellulose and glucose
    • Fibers: cellulos, pectic compounds , hemicellulose, lignin, gums
  56. Parenchyma Cells
    • most common in vegetables and fruits
    • starch content
    • color
    • water volume
    • flavor
  57. parenchyma cells cont
    plastids organelles that store substances, such as starch and pigments
  58. Types of parenchyma cells
    • lecuoplasts: store starch and some water
    • chloroplasts: contains the chlorophyll essential for carb syhtesis and create green color
    • Chromoplasts: contain carotene or xanthophyll pigments and creaste orange-yellow color
  59. Vacoules
    • sotre water and other compounds
    • tugor rigid frimness of plant filled with water
  60. organinc acid
    • contribut to foods
    • cell ph
    • flavor and acidity
  61. Intercellular air spaces
    • adds volume and crispness
    • closeness of cells to each other creates textural differences in terms of crispiness
  62. phytochemicals
    • contain nonnutritive compounds
    • possess health protective benefits
    • cruciferous vegetables contain phytochemicals
    • ex. broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage , cauliflower, kale , mustard greens, rutabanga , kohlrabi, turnips
  63. Lycopene
    • compound responsible for red color
    • reduce risk of prostate and digestive tract cancers
  64. Luteolm
    • reduce the growth of cancer cells
    • anti inflammatory properties
    • soy
  65. Soy
    reducd risk of breast an uterin cancers
  66. Fiber
    reduce the risk of colon cancer
  67. selecting vegetables
    • from living plants grown in cycles with season
    • grading is mostly volountary
    • amount
  68. Legumes
  69. Soy Beans
    • relatively high protein and fat
    • textured vegetabel protein:soybeans peanuts and cottonseed
    • meat analog: imitation meats made by blending soy protein with begetable proteins
    • tofu: cheese made from soymilk,bland flavor
  70. buying vegetables
    only the freshest and amount needed
  71. Storage
    store immediately at appropriate temp and humidity
  72. washing
    wash all begetables wash quickly to avoid H2O apsorption
  73. Cooking liquid
    cook in as small amount as possible
  74. Timing
    cooking time should be as short as possible
  75. Changes during heating
    • texture: starch and cellulose softens = tugor reduction
    • flavor: retain flavor comounds
    • odor: contribute to perception of flavor, pungent casued by sulfur
    • color: fat and water soluble affected by ph and metals
    • nuitritional retention
  76. Dry heat Method
    • Baking: whole at 350F
    • roasting: at 375, almost all vegetables , more flavorful
    • Stir-frying: little oil along natural moisture
    • Deep Frying:
  77. Moist Heat Prep
    • swimmering: avoids nutrent loss and adverse effects on color, texture and flavor.
    • Steaming: Takes longer than simmering,but better retention of flavor,texture and color
    • Ex. foil wragpped vegetables
    • Braising: brwn first then simmer in own juices
    • Microwabing: retain texture, color, and nutrient
  78. Preperation of legumes
    • best by simmering
    • 3 soak methods:
    • overnight
    • short soak
    • no soak
    • Avoid hard water
  79. Pitfall of eating legumes
    • gas
    • which can be reduced by rinsing, or taking an enzyme product
  80. Storage Vegetables
    • Reduce respiration
    • prevent moisture loss
    • optimial humidity = 85-90 mantain moister
  81. Storage vegetables refigerated
    • coolore temperatures resuce respiration
    • based on water content
    • high water vegetables have shorter storage times
  82. freezing storage vegetables
    fresh vegetable should not be frozen unless first blanched
  83. dry storage vegetables
    • some not in refrigerator
    • exam tomates eggplant,winter sqash etc
  84. fruits
    • natures desserts
    • in most shape and color
    • fruits and seeds all over the world
  85. Types of fruits is determined by the type of flower
    • simple: develop from 1 flower
    • aggregate: develop from several ovares in one flower
    • Multiple: develop from a cluster of several flowers
  86. composition of fruits
    cellular structure and pigments
  87. organic acid
    • volatile: vaporize during heation
    • non volatile: do not vaporize; leach out when cooked in water
    • Common acide:
    • citric- in citrus fruits and tomatoes
    • malic-in apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, strawberries
    • tartic- in grapes
    • oxalic- rhubarb
    • benzoic- cranberries
  88. Acidity of fruits
    • cause most fruit to have a ph value below 5.0
    • incrases as the fruit ripens
    • tartness related
    • lemons, limes, and cranberries have lowest ph 2.0
    • leact acidic fruits those with ph 4.5 above
  89. pectic substances
    • polysaccharides found in fruit
    • cell cement, partially responsible for firmness and structure
  90. Protopectin
    • large, insouble molecule in young fruit
    • enzyme tranform into pectin as fruit repins
    • doesnt contribute to gelling
  91. Pectic Substances
    • pectin: produced at heigh of ripeness, makes james and jellies
    • Pectic Acid: produced when fruit is overripe
    • doesnt contribute to gelling
    • Albedo: white, inner rind of citrus fruits , rich in pectin and aromatic oils
    • protopectin > pectin > pectic acid
  92. Food industry uses pectin as
    • emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener,texterizer
    • can cause cloudindes
  93. Phenolic compound
    • resposible for browning
    • aslo called tanins
    • found in unripe fruits
    • ex apples, arpicots. avocados, bananas, cherries
  94. Fruits as functional foodes
    • important in growth
    • some but not all rich in vitamons and minerals, antoxidants
    • lycopen: reduce cancer risk
    • polychenols: decresed of hogh blood pressure, heart diseas and stroke
    • fiber: decreased risk of colon cancer and high blood pressure
  95. Food Additives in fruits
    • prevent brwoning
    • sulfites, sorbate, benzoate
    • sorboic acid: antifungal agent preservation
    • Benzoic Acid preservative often used in dried fruits
  96. Selecting Fresh fruits
    grading , buy during peak season
  97. Processed fruits
    make fruit available all year by cannong freezing and drying
  98. superfruits
    • goji and acai: increase energy levels, protect the heart from chronic deseas
    • blueberry: protect agains oxidative stress
    • Cranberry : prevent and treatment of urinary tract infections
  99. Processed fruits
    • canned, halbes, resveratol
    • grade A best
    • B choice
    • C standard
  100. Frozen fruits
    retains color and tastebut texture is damaged
  101. dried fruits
    • method of preserving
    • 5lb of grapes to make 1 lb of rasin
    • rehydrating add 1/2 cup liquid per 1 cup dried fruit
  102. Fruit juices
    cans,cartons, 3/4 water removed
  103. Powdered form fruits
    may contain added sugar
  104. fruit juice processing
    • juic extratin
    • clarifiacation:pulp eliminated
    • dearation: air removed
    • Pasterizaiton: hogh heat inactivates and destroy microorganisms
    • Concetration/additions: juice percentage varies
  105. enzymatic browning
    certain fruits susceptible to brwoning when sliced , inhibiotion can be done by denaturing enzymes
  106. Acid PH
    acid inhibits polpheno oxidase enxyme activity
  107. Cold temperatures
    slows enzyme activity but not colplet enzyme inhibiton
  108. coating with sugar or water
    prevents exposure to oxygen
  109. Antoxidant
    Ascorbic acid ( vitamin C) and sulfur compound use up oxygen
  110. Changes during heating
    • color
    • txture
    • protopectin to pectin
    • degradation of cellulose
    • denaturation
  111. Osmosis Fuits
    fruits somotic system of selective permeablity is repalced with simple diffusion
  112. Changes during heating Acromatic oils
    • found in peels of oranges lemons
    • zest: colorfule outl layer conatin more flavor than juices
  113. Flavor
    • sugars acids, essential oils, phenolic and aromatic compounds
    • lost during heating
  114. Fruit spread ingredients
    • pectin: spread gel
    • sugar: natrual preserv
    • acid: flavor and gel
    • fruit:
  115. Prepearing frut spread
    • must have pectin, sugar,acid,
    • heat the fruit
    • add sugar
    • pour the mixture
    • seal the container
  116. Beef
    • steers: castrated gain weight quikly
    • Bulls: stag meat used for breeding later for processed foods
    • heifers and cows: females have not born calf used for meat
    • Calves: too old and too young baby beef
  117. Veal
    • young calfes 3 weeks to 3 months
    • restricted movement
    • tender texture
    • Free range veal less tender
  118. Lamb and Mutton
    • meat of sheep
    • differnece is the age
    • lamb les 14 months mutons over 14
    • muton is darker and tougher and stronger flavor
  119. Pork
    • most from young swine
    • slaughtered between 51/2 and 7 months old
    • pigs are less than 4 months
    • hogs are older than 4 months
  120. Structure of meat
    composed of a combinationof water,muscle , connective tissue andipose tissue, and bone
  121. Mucsle tissue
    • most protein in animals is found their muscle serve as dietary meat,
    • muscles are made up of individual muscle cells called muslce fiber
    • sourounded by sacromlemma
    • about 2000 smaller muscle fibrils serving as contractile components
    • if fibrils are small gives a very delicat velverty consistency
  122. connective tissue
    • part of ligaments and tendons and it acts as the glue holds muslce
    • mixture of proteins and mucopolysaccharides
  123. Collegen
    • most abundant protein in the connective tissue
    • tough and fibrous converts to a agel when exposed to moist heat
  124. Effect of collagen on tenderness
    • amount of connective tissue and cooking method
    • high CT more tough
    • muscles used for movement
  125. effect of age on tenderness
    • collagen increase as age
    • less expensive tougher cuts
    • require moist heat
    • tougher cuts have more flavor than tender
  126. effect of elasin on tenderness
    • elasitn which is yellowish rubbery does not soften with heating
    • should be removed
    • little in meats except in cuts from neck and shoulder
  127. Adipose Tissue (fatty )
    • fat
    • insulation under the skin and padding
    • ouside the meat is cover fat helps retain moisture of meats
  128. Marbling
    • fat found within muscles
    • higher marbles have a higher price
  129. Bone
    • used as landmarks for identitifiyin the various meat cuts from carcass
    • more bone less meat
Card Set
Food Prep
Exam 2