5.1 The Nature of Energy
• Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
• Thermochemistry is the study of the relationships between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat.
- • Energy is the capacity to do work or to transfer heat.
- • Work is energy used to cause an object with mass to move.
- w = F × d
- Heat is the energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase.
- • A force is any kind of push or pull exerted on an object.
- • The most familiar force is the pull of gravity.
- Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
- • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion:
- • Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or composition.
- • Electrostatic energy is an example.
- • It arises from interactions between charged particles.
- • Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy.
Units of Energy
- • SI unit is the joule (J).
- • Traditionally, we use the calorie as a unit of energy.
- • 1 cal = 4.184 J (exactly)
- • The nutritional Calorie, Cal = 1,000 cal = 1 kcal.
System and Surroundings
- • A system is the part of the universe we are interested in studying.
- • Surroundings are the rest of the universe (i.e., the surroundings are the portions of the universe that are not involved in the system).
- • Example: If we are interested in the interaction between hydrogen and oxygen in a cylinder, then the H2 and O2 in the cylinder form a system.
Transferring Energy: Work and Heat
- • From physics:
- • Force is a push or pull exerted on an object.
- • Work is the energy used to move an object against a force.
- w = F × d
Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
- • Energy is the capacity to do work or to transfer heat.
- • Energy in J (and kJ) to energy of thermodynamic calculations throughout Chapters 19, 14
- (Arrhenius equation in section 14.5), and Chapter 20 (Gibbs free energy vs. cell potential in
- section 20.5).
5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
• The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
• The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy.
• That is, the energy of system + surroundings is constant.
- • Thus, any energy transferred from a system must be transferred to the surroundings (and vice
- • The total energy, E, of a system is called the internal energy.
- • It is the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of all components of the system.
- • Absolute internal energy cannot be measured, only changes in internal energy.
- • Change in internal energy: ΔE = Efinal – Einitial.
- • Thermodynamic quantities such as ΔE always have three parts:
- • a number,
- • a unit, and
- • a sign that gives direction.
Example: A mixture of H2(g) and O2(g) has a higher internal energy than H2O(g).
- • Going from H2(g) and O2(g) to H2O(g) results in a negative change in internal energy,
- indicating that the system has lost energy to the surroundings:
- H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g) ΔE < 0
- • Going from H2O(g) to H2(g) and O2(g) results in a positive change in internal energy,
- indicating that the system has gained energy from the surroundings:
- 2H2O H2(g) + O2(g) ΔE > 0
Relating ΔE to Heat and Work3
- • From the first law of thermodynamics:
- • When a system undergoes a physical or chemical change, the change in internal energy is given
- by the heat added to or liberated from the system plus the work done on or by the system:
- ΔE = q + w
Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
- • An endothermic process is one that absorbs heat from the surroundings.
- • An endothermic reaction feels cold.
- • An exothermic process is one that transfers heat to the surroundings.
- • An exothermic reaction feels hot.
- • A state function depends only on the initial and final states of a system.
- • Example: The altitude difference between Denver and Chicago does not depend on whether you
- fly or drive, only on the elevation of the two cities above sea level.
- • Similarly, the internal energy of 50 g of H2O(l) at 25 °C does not depend on whether we cool 50 g of H2O(l) from 100 °C to 25 °C or heat 50 g of H2O(l) at 0 °C to 25 °C.
- • A state function does not depend on how the internal energy is used.
- • Example: A battery in a flashlight can be discharged by producing heat and light. The same
- battery in a toy car is used to produce heat and work. The change in internal energy of the battery
- is the same in both cases.
• Chemical and physical changes that occur around us occur under essentially constant pressure of Earth’s atmosphere.• Changes may be accompanied by work done by or on the system
Changes may involve the release or absorption of heat.
- • We will focus much of our discussion on what we can learn from measurement of heat flow.
- • Enthalpy (H) is defined as the internal energy (E) plus the product of the pressure and volume of the system.
- H = E + PV
- • Enthalpy is useful for investigating heat flow in events that occur under constant pressure.
- • Again, we can only measure the change in enthalpy, ΔH.
- • Mathematically,
- ΔH = Hfinal – Hinitial = ΔE + PΔV
- w = –PΔV; ΔE = q + wΔH = ΔE + PΔV = (qp + w) – w = qp
• For most reactions PΔV is small thus ΔH = ΔE
- • Heat transferred from surroundings to the system has a positive enthalpy (i.e., ΔH > 0 for an
- endothermic reaction).
- • Heat transferred from the system to the surroundings has a negative enthalpy (i.e., ΔH < 0 for an
- exothermic reaction).
- • Enthalpy is a state function.
- • If the reaction is carried out under constant pressure,
- • ΔE = qp – PΔV, or
- • qp = ΔH = ΔE + PΔV
- • and ΔE = ΔH – PΔV
5.4 Enthalpies of Reaction
- • For a reaction, ΔHrxn = Hproducts – Hreactants.
- • The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction is called the enthalpy of reaction or heat of
- reaction (ΔHrxn).
- • Consider the thermochemical equation for the production of water:
- 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g) ΔH = –483.6 kJ
- • The equation tells us that 483.6 kJ of energy are released to the surroundings when water is
- • ΔH noted at the end of the balanced equation depends on the number of moles of reactants and
- products associated with the ΔH value.
- • These equations are called thermochemical equations.
- • Enthalpy diagrams are used to represent enthalpy changes associated with a reaction.
- • In the enthalpy diagram for the combustion of H2(g), the reactants, 2H2(g) + O2(g), have a higherenthalpy than the products 2H2O(g); this reaction is exothermic
• Enthalpy is an extensive property.
- • Therefore, the magnitude of enthalpy is directly proportional to the amount of reactant consumed.
- • Example: If one mol of CH4 is burned in oxygen to produce CO2 and water, 890 kJ of heat is
- released to the surroundings. If two mol of CH4 is burned, then 1780 kJ of heat is released.
- • The sign of ΔH depends on the direction of the reaction.
- • The enthalpy change for a reaction is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to ΔH for the
- reverse reaction.
- • Example: CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) ΔH = –890 kJ,
- • But CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ΔH = +890 kJ.
- • Enthalpy change depends on state of the products and reactants.
- • 2H2O(g) 2H2O(l) ΔH = –88 kJ
Calorimetry is a measurement of heat flow.• A calorimeter is an apparatus that measures heat flow
- Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
- • Heat capacity is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by 1 °C.
- • Molar heat capacity is the heat capacity of 1 mol of a substance.
- • Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is the heat capacity of 1 g of a substance.
- • Heat, q = (specific heat) × (grams of substance) × ΔT.
- • Be careful with the sign of q.
- • The most common technique is to use atmospheric pressure as the constant pressure.
- • Recall ΔH = qp.
- • The easiest method is to use a coffee cup calorimeter.
- qsoln = (specific heat of solution) × (grams of solution) × ΔT = –qrxn
- • For dilute aqueous solutions, the specific heat of the solution will be close to that of pure water.
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)
- • Reactions can be carried out under conditions of constant volume instead of constant pressure.
- • Constant volume calorimetry is carried out in a bomb calorimeter.
- • The most common type of reaction studied under these conditions is combustion.
- • If we know the heat capacity of the calorimeter, Ccal, then the heat of reaction,
- qrxn = –Ccal × ΔT.• Since the reaction is carried out under constant volume, q relates to ΔE
5.6 Hess’s Law
• Hess’s Law: If a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ΔH for the reaction is the sum of ΔH for each of the steps.
5.7 Enthalpies of Formation
- • If a compound is formed from its constituent elements, then the enthalpy change for the reaction is called the enthalpy of formation, ΔHf.
- • Standard state (standard conditions) refer to the substance at:
- • 1 atm and 25 °C (298 K).
- • Standard enthalpy, ΔH°, is the enthalpy measured when everything is in its standard state.• Standard enthalpy of formation of a compound, ΔH°f, is the enthalpy change for the formation of 1mol of compound with all substances in their standard states
ΔH°f for selected substances are tabulated in Appendix C.
- • A large majority of ΔH°f values tabulated in Appendix C are negative, meaning that most
- formation reactions are exothermic.
- • If there is more than one state for a substance under standard conditions, the more stable one is used.
- Example: When dealing with carbon we use graphite because graphite is more stable than diamond or C60.
- • The standard enthalpy of formation of the most stable form of an element is zero.
Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction
- • Use Hess’s law!
- • Example: Calculate ΔH for
- C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
- • We start with the reactants, decompose them into elements, then rearrange the elements to form
- products. The overall enthalpy change is the sum of the enthalpy changes for each step.
- • Decomposing into elements (note O2 is already elemental, so we concern ourselves with C3H8):
- C3H8(g) 3C(s) + 4H2(g) ΔH1 = –ΔH°f [C3H8(g)]
- • Next we form CO2 and H2O from their elements:
- 3C(s) + 3O2(g) 3CO2(g) ΔH2 = 3 ΔH°f [CO2(g)]
- 4H2(g) + 2O2(g) 4H2O(l) ΔH3 = 4 ΔH°f [H2O(l)]
- • We look up the values and add:
- ΔH°rxn = –1(–103.85 kJ) + 3(–393.5 kJ) + 4(–285.8 kJ) = –2220 kJ
- • In general:
- ΔH°rxn = n ΔH°f (products) – m ΔH°f (reactants)
- • Where n and m are the stoichiometric coefficients.
5.8 Foods and Fuels
- • Fuel value is the energy released when 1 g of substance is burned.
- • The fuel value of any food or fuel is a positive value that must be measured by calorimetry.
- • Fuel value is usually measured in Calories (1 nutritional Calorie, 1 Cal = 1000 cal).
- • Most energy in our bodies comes from the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats.
- • In the intestines carbohydrates are converted into glucose, C6H12O6, or blood sugar.
- • In the cells glucose reacts with O2 in a series of steps, which produce CO2, H2O, and energy.
- C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) ΔH°= –2803 kJ
- • Fats, for example tristearin, react with O2 as follows:
- 2C57H110O6(s) + 163O2(g) 114CO2(g) + 110H2O(l) ΔH° = –75,250 kJ
- • Fats contain more energy than carbohydrates. Fats are not water soluble. Therefore, fats are good for energy storage.
- • In 2008 the United States consumed about 1.05 × 1017 kJ/year (9.4 × 105 kJ of fuel per person per day).
- • Most of this energy comes from petroleum and natural gas.
- • The remainder of the energy comes from coal, nuclear and hydroelectric sources.
- • Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are fossil fuels. They are not renewable.
- • Natural gas consists largely of carbon and hydrogen. Compounds such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and
- C4H10 are typical constituents.
- • Petroleum is a liquid consisting of hundreds of compounds. Impurities include S, N, and O
- • Coal contains high molecular weight compounds of C and H. In addition compounds
- containing S, O, and N are present as impurities that form air pollutants when burned in air.
- Other Energy Sources45
- • Nuclear energy: energy released in splitting or fusion of nuclei of atoms.
- • It is used to produce about 21% of the electric power in the US.
- • Fossil fuels and nuclear energy are nonrenewable sources of energy.
- • Renewable energy sources include:
• Solar energy
- • Wind energy
- • Geothermal energy
- • Hydroelectric energy
- • Biomass energy
- • These are virtually inexhaustible and will become increasingly important as fossil fuels are