1. Explain the predictor:
    • - Role played by behavioral variables in selection research
    • - x-variable, independent variable
    • -variable used to predict a criterion variable

    ex. cognitive ability, physical ability, personality
  2. Explain a criterion:
    • - Role played by behavioral variables in selection research
    • - y-variable, dependent variable
    • -variable that is the primary object of the study

    • ex. the outcome of what an employer wants to know
    • -turnover, absenteeism, theft
  3. Face Validity
    On the surface, the selection measure look as if they measure some job attribute. The face validity of a selection measure can be important.

    Ex. low face validity might cause an applicant to feel less motivated to perform well on a test or to become less interested in pursuing a job offer. As a result, decreased motivation might cause the individual to actually perform less well than he or she otherwise could.
  4. What is the purpose of criterion-related validation?
    To determine the empirical relationship between a selection instrument and a criterion measure. This will show how useful the instrument is as a predictor of performance on the job.
  5. Predictive Validity
    A common method used for demonstrating Criterion-Related Validation.

    - Two identifying features of the predicitive validity techniqure are (1) use of job applicants as participants in the study and (2) a time interval between testing and collecting criterion data.

    -The test is administered to these applicants, and then their responses are filed away, unscored, for a later time.

    Ex. Those who are applying for the job is the sample for the study.

    You either predict future performance, or you correlate performance on two tests separated by a decent time interval (SAT vs. GPA on report cards a year later.) If you see "expect", you are probably dealing with predictive validity.
  6. Concurrent Validity
    A common method used for demonstrating Criterion-Related Validation.

    -The sample is made up of the organization's current employees who are already on the job for which the test is being prepared. They are given the test and their work performance is evaluated concurrently.

    There is no time interval between the predictor and the criterion measures. The two measures are taken at the same time.

    You want to develop a test, or replace a test, that is currently in use. You substitute the new measure for one that is already available, that measures the same trait. The old measure is the criterion.
  7. What is a validity coefficient?

    The r is the validity coefficient. It is established by an empirical relationship between the instrument and a job criterion. Statistically shown by r between the predicot and the criterion.
  8. What are the constraints of of both predicitive and concurrent strategies?
    • -Good criterion measure of job performance.
    • -Adequate sample size, need a large one.
    • -Assumption of linearity
    • -Restriction of range
  9. What are the constraints of concurrent strategy?
    • -Sample is not representative of population
    • -Bias only matters if it effects the predictive and criterion
    • -ex. baseball players-predictive-strong upper body strength for homerun, concurrent-add in female players bias towards males?
    • -Jobs change-workers change how they do their jobs
    • - technology can change how we do a job. It is always changing (secretary and working in psych department for 20 years and technology keeps changing)
    • -Motivation of current employees to be involved in the current study.
    • ex. A job applicant is very serious about a personality test for an interview, a job incumbent just takes the test beacuse cothing is at stake.
  10. What is the objective of a Content-Related Validation? And what does Content-Related Validation entail? What kind of test could be given?
    • -To establish that a logical or rational relationship exists between the contents of an instrument and the contents of the job.
    • -If a test is made up of a sample of a job's content, then an applicant who can perform the test also will be able to perform the job. In general, it is sound reasoning.
    • -A thorough job analysis because that is what the concept is about, if a person is able to complete a test on the job analysis they should be able to do the job.
    • Ex.- Secretary position and give them a typing test.
  11. Criterion versus content related validity, which is preferred?
    Criterion-related validity.
  12. When would you use content-related instead of criterion-related strategy?
    • No criterion exists
    • Small sample size
    • Organizational constraint (time, money)
  13. R2
    Variability, or a validity coeffient

    The variability (or variance) is the square of the reliability. Variance is r2; it is the same thing as variability. It is similar to the coefficient of determination that tells you the proportion of the variance that two correlated variables share.
  14. What is Validity Generalization?
    The results of a validity study conducted in one situation can be generalized to another situation.

    Ex. Bellisios- a personality test is given to servers. Owners can find a personality test with another restaurant and compare.

    BUT if a test validated for use in hiring for one job was going to be used for a different job, it would have to be revalidated.
  15. Incremental Validity
    This form of validity can help determine whether or not a particular instrument or method provides a significant improvement in addition to the use of another approach.

    For instance, does a screening instrument provide a significantly better result during an 50 minute interview than just using just the interview alone? An particular approach is said to have incremental validity if it actually helps more that not using it.
  16. Why is validation important?
    • The law says so
    • Organizations should want to know that the money they spend on testing will actually help select the best employees
    • Having more valid tests will result in selecting better employees, resulting in better performance, increasing the bottom-line
    • Ethical and social reasons:As applicants, employees and consumers, don't we want to be ensured that people are being selected for their job-relevant skills?
  17. What is Multiple Regression?
    • Statistical method based upon correlation
    • Combine scores on different predictor measures and obtain a single score for each applicant that can be used to decide whom to hire.
    • Shows the relationship between scores on predictors and criterion.

    • Assumptions:
    • Linearity
    • Compensatory model
  18. Dealing with Multiple Regression what is the compensatory model?
    when given 3 tests (ex. cognitive, personality, physical) and they only do well in 2 tests and suck in one, the other 2 compensate for the bad one.
  19. What is Mulitple Cutoffs?
    • Minimum cut-offs or passing scores are set for the predictors
    • Cut-offs are set by SME's (subject matter experts)

    • Assumptions:
    • an absolute level of a KSA is required
  20. What are Multiple Hurdles?
    • An applicant who doesn't pass the first instrument doesn't make it into the next step and so on
    • Involves sequential stages
    • Economical

    • Which instrument do we put 1st?
    • Most valid for the job, and cheapest.
  21. Describe Aptitude Tests
    • Ability tests or the "can do" tests such as:
    • cognitive ability tests
    • special ability tests
    • job knowledge tests-have to have previous knowledge
  22. Describe Tests of personality and character
    • The "will-do" tests
    • Personality tests
    • Integrity tests
    • Drug testing-random testing is most effective
  23. As a selection predictor, how does personal history fit?
    • Weighted application blanks
    • Biodata
    • Resumes
    • References
  24. What are the 5 issues to consider in using various selection measures?
    • Validity
    • Potential adverse impact/Legal issues
    • Practicallity
    • Applicant reactions
    • Faking
  25. What are the Big Five traits and what do they mean?
    • Extraversion (sociability)- Talkative, ambitious, enthusiastic, energetic
    • Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)- Anxious, fearful, insecure, depressed or bad tempered
    • Agreeableness (likeability)- warm, good-natured, complient, flexible, tactful
    • Conscientiousness (dependability)- thorough, responsible, achievement orientated, hardworking
    • Openness to experience (culture)- imaginative, interested, cultured, broadminded, enlightened.
  26. Is the Big Five Model valid?
    It is valid for a quick personality test and a brief look at someone, but it is more in depth to an employee is what counts.
  27. Personality Tests
    Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
  28. What are types of Integrity Tests?
    • Overt integrity tests are made up of 2 kinds:
    • -attitudes towards theft and other dishonest behaviors
    • -Other items are about a person's actual dishonest behaviors in the past How much have you stolen in the past

    • Personality-based:
    • these tests contain personality test items, such as questions about whether you like to take chances, are a hardworker, and respect the views of authorites
  29. The development of Biodata and why it works?
    A biographical inventory is composed of multiple-choice items that allow an applicant to describe themselves in terms of demographic, experiential and attitudinal variables.

    It works because the applicant doesn't know if there is a right answer so they just pick the one that best applies to them.
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