1. There are two forms of behavior
    • Innate behavior
    • Learned behavior
  2. INNATE behavior
    • performed without prior experience
    • performed reasonably complete first time
    • at right age and
    • with correct motivation

    • The behavior appears even if the animal is deprived of the opportunity to learn it
    • For example, a red squirrel will attempt to bury a nut when presented with it for the first time
  3. LEARNED behavior:
    • require experience
    • make changes in behavior based on experience
    • process by which a human learns language
    • a sparrows use of stars for navigation
  4. Habituation
    decline in response to a repeated stimulus
  5. Conditioning
    • Conditioning: learned association between a stimulus and a response
    • trial-and-error learning: New and appropriate responses to stimuli are acquired through experience
    • operant conditioning: learn behaviors to receive a reward or to avoid punishment
    • Insight learning: problem solving without trial and error
  6. operant conditioning
    learn behaviors to receive a reward or to avoid punishment
  7. trial-and-error learning
    New and appropriate responses to stimuli are acquired through experience
  8. Insight learning
    • problem solving without trial and error

  9. Innate vs Learned
    • innate behavior can be modified by experience
    • habituation modifies innate
    • Fine tunes innate response to
    • environment
    • learning may be governed by innate constraints : imprinting
  10. Communication
    • production of a signal by one organism that causes another organism to change its behavior in a way beneficial to both

    • Visual displays
    • Sound
    • Chemicals
    • Touch
  11. Sound
    • sound signals are almost instantaneous
    • transmitted through darkness, dense forests, and murky water
    • vervet monkeys produce different calls to warn about different predators: snakes, leopards, and eagles
    • Male water striders vibrate their legs, sending species-specific patterns of vibrations through the water, attracting mates and repelling other males
  12. animal communication by chemicals Image Upload 1
    • Pheromones
    • usually not detected by other species; no predators
    • can carry messages over long distances
    • little energy to produce
    • persisting over time and marking an animals boundaries
    • can cause immediate changes in the behavior of the detecting animal
    • foraging termites that discover food lay a trails of pheromones from the food to the nest, and other termites follow the trail
  13. animal communication by touch
    • Gestures include kissing, nuzzling, patting, petting, and grooming
    • Touch is important to human development and well-being, and in many mammal species, cements the bond between parent and offspring
    • Touch can also be a prelude to sexual activity
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