Food chem 15

  1. What are some uses of soybean protein?
    • Use as an emulsifier in sausage formulations
    • In meat to control fat absorption
    • In donuts to prevent fat absorption
    • Used to increase water absorption in baked goods
    • Used to vary texture- thickening agent for soups and graves
    • Can be used to form gels/curd- tofu
    • Can be used as a whipping agent- dream whip
    • Can be used as a binder in meat loaves sausages etc
    • Can be 'texturized'- bacon bits, artificial bacon strips, texturized vegetable protein (TVP)
    • Can be partly hydrolyzed to allow its use closer to its isoelectric point, hence prevent precipitation and loss of functionality in th pH 3-5 range
  2. Why has soy protein replaced conventional protein sources?
    Lower cost
  3. How did whey protein concentrates become an important product?
    Whey protein concentrates came next in response to environmental problems caused by diposal of whey from cheese manufacture
  4. What is single cell protein?
    Covers most microbial sources of protein, including bacteria, yeasts and molds
  5. What is the major problem with all microbial sources?
    Their relatively high nucleic acid content, which cannot be handled by the livers of monogastric organisms in excessive amounts
  6. What happens if yeast is consumed on a substantive scale?
    Can lead to liver damage and gout
  7. What are some issues of bacteria as a microbial protein?
    Beyond nucleic acid tissue- other issues include toxicological and potential pathogenicity of microorganisms
  8. Algae used as a microbial protein
    Algae have recieved a lot of attention from the space program where its photosynthetic ability could be capitalized upon ingestion of more than 100g per day leads to nausea, cvomiting and abdominal pains- it is sold as a health supplement
  9. What is marmite made from?
    Brewer's yast
  10. What is quorn?
    A very successful texturized product, developed using mushroom mycelium
  11. What is pea starch used for?
    Pea starch is used extensively for oil drilling (drilling mud)- a byproduct is pea protein
  12. What is produced by pin milling peas?
    Pea starch and a pea protein rich fracvtion can be produced by pin milling peas
  13. What is air classification used for?
    Air classification is used to separate the heavier starch from the lighter protein fraction
  14. What are pea concentrates and isolates used for?
    Pea concentrates and isolates have been used successfully in hamburger, bread and sausage formulations and incorporated into high protein extruded snacks
  15. What is the main problem of bean protein concentrates?
    The major problem with bean protein concentrates, like soy, is that if used in too high a concentration flatulence will be a problem
  16. What are the main problems with leaf protein?
    The main problems are stabiliy, yield and palatability
  17. What happens to the rest of fish protein that is not consumed?
    Often ends up as animal feed or fertilized in the form of fish meal
  18. How is fish protein concentrate produced?
    • Involves the mincing of fish, followed by extraction of the fat using isopropyl alcohol
    • The protein rich residue was the steam stripped to remove the solvent and fishy ocor/flavor and then ground into a powder
    • The resulting isolate is nutritionally comparable to egg albumin, but lacking in any functional properties
  19. Why was fish protein concentrate a failure?
    Nutritionally, as a direct rptoein supplement, it works very well, being of high quality. However, because of lack of functionality there is no practical means of inforporatin it into food products
  20. What is surimi?
    • Surimi reers to a process of mincing, steaming and shaping of fish tissue
    • Technically it is the production of a myosin/actomyosin paste, minus the sarcoplasmic protiens, which have been extracted
Card Set
Food chem 15
Food chem 15