two types of bacteria:
: require oxygen
: can survive in oxygen-free environments
: (plural -
) -- OOOO
: (plural -
) -- ==== ==== ====
: -- ~~~~~~~~~~~~
four bacterial diseases:
a disease causing organism [G: "to give birth to" "suffering"]
normal flora or microbiota
assemblage of microorganisms that reside on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, and in the gastrointestinal tracts.
"against life"; a chemical used to kill living cells, generally bacteria
Non-living infectious agent. They cannot use energy or reproduce on their own, they must invade living cells.
three viral diseases:
viral life cycle:
virus attaches to the host cell
the protein coat stays on the outside and the viral genes are inserted into the host
the host cell follows the new genetic instructions and begins to produce more viruses
a virus that grabs a peice of the host cell's membrane to act as a "cloak"
two examples of enveloped viruses:
blood components and their properties and role in the body:
: acts as a fluid medium allowing blood cells to flow efficiently around the body
: spikey particles that help clot blood
red blood cells
: carry oxygen to the tissues and carry CO
away, using hemoglobin
white blood cells
: important component of the immune system
the process of engulfing other cells
identifying proteins on the outside of cells or viruses
any protein that causes an immune response
a plasma protein produced by the white blood cells when foreign proteins are encountered
stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to that protein, as if you had been exposed to the actual invader
contains one or more antigens from an infective agent
molecules or ions with unpaired electrons
what cellular damage do free radicals cause?
they damage the molecules around them when they attempt to fill their outside shell.
cell membranes and DNA are often damaged