Psych 101 test 4

  1. Consiousness
    awareness of internal and external stimuli
  2. EEG electroencephalograph
    device that monitors the electrical activitiy of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attacted to the surface of the scalp
  3. amplitude
  4. frequency
    cycles per second (CPS)
  5. Delta waves
    under 4 cps... consistent with deep sleep
  6. Theta waves
    4-7 cps associated with light sleep
  7. alpha waves
    8-12 cps related to deep relaxation, blank mindedness, and meditation
  8. Beta waves
    13-24 cps Normal waking thought, alert problem solving state of mind
  9. Biological rythyms
    periodic fluctuations in pyhsiological functioning.
  10. circadian rhythm
    24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species
  11. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    sends signal to the pineal gland which secretes meletonin, which plays a key role in the adjustment of biological clocks
  12. electromyograph EMG
    records muscular activity and tension
  13. electrooculograph EOG
    records eye movements
  14. hypnic jerks
    muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep occur during staqe one drowsiness
  15. sleep spindles
    brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves during stage 2 sleep
  16. slow wave sleep SWS
    consists of sleep stages 3 and 4 during which high-amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent in eeg recordings
  17. REM sleep
    A relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-frequency, low amplitude beta brain waves, and vivd dreaming
  18. non rem sleep
    stages 1-4 which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied eeg activity
  19. co sleeping
    babies sleeping in the same bed as their parents
  20. ascending reticular activating system
    the afferent (arriving) nerve fibers running through the reticular formation that influences physiological arousal.
  21. insomnia
    chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
  22. narcolepsy
    sudden and irresistable onset of sleep during normal waking periods
  23. sleep apnea
    frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep.
  24. nightmares
    anxiety arousing DREAMS that lead to awakening from rem sleep hard to get back to sleep
  25. night terrors
    abrupt awakenings from nonrem sleep acompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelins of panic usually no recollection of a dream, but they'll let our a cry or bolt upright... sleep easy
  26. somnambulism
  27. day residue
    contents of waking life that tend to spill into dreams
  28. wish fulfilment
    fulfilling unconscious urges and ungratified needs though wishful thinking in dreams.
  29. manifest content
    the plot of a dream at a surface level
  30. latent content
    the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in a plot ie walking into a cave is having sex
  31. activation synthesis model
    dreams are the side effect of the neural activation that produces beta brain waves during rem sleep... the cortex constructs a dream to make sense of the signals
  32. problem solving view
    continuity exists between waking and sleeping thought and dreams allow people ot engage in creative thinging about pressing personal issues because they aren't restrained by logic or realism
  33. hypnosis
    systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility
  34. absorption
    the capacity to reduce of block peripleral awarness and marrow the focus of on'es attention
  35. dissociation
    the apility to spearate aspects of percetion, memorty, or identity, from the mainstream of conscious awareness
  36. suggestibility
    the tendency to accept directions and infrmation relatedlet uncritically
  37. analgesia
    the pain relief that comes from hypnosis
  38. sensory distortions and gallucinations
    auditory or visual hallucinations that are not there, or a failure to recognize stimuli that are obviously present
  39. disinhibition
    reduced inhibitions due to hypnosis
  40. posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia
    the inablility to remember what happened during a hypnotic trance due to the hypnosis saying something along the lines of... you won't remember a thing when you wake up
  41. dissociation
    splitting off of mental pcovesses into two separate silultaneous streams of awareness
  42. meditation
    a familt of practices that train attentino to heighten awaremess and bring cmental processes under greater voluntary control
  43. psychoactive drugs
    chemical substances that modify metal, emotional or behavioral functioning
  44. narcotics aka opiates
    drugs perived from opium that relieve pain
  45. sedatives
    sleep-inducing drugs that dtent to devreas CNS activatioin and behavoiural activity
  46. stimulants
    increase CNS activation and behavioural activity
  47. hallucinogens
    have powerful effects on mental and emotional functionig, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience
  48. cannabis
    the hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and thc are derived
  49. alcohol
    a variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol
  50. mdma
    a compound drug related to amphetamines and hallucinogens, especially mescaline
  51. tolerance
    a progressive decrease in a person's resposiveness to a drug
  52. physical dependence
    whena person has to take a drug to avoid withdrawl symptoms
  53. psychological dependence
    has to take a drug to satisfy intense mental/emotional cravings
  54. leucid dreams
    people can think clearly about the circumstances of waking life and the fact that they are dreaming, yet they remain asleep in the midst of a vivid dream
  55. nominal fallacy
    cicular reasoning... he's an alcoholic because he drinks too much
  56. Rosalind cartwright
    The problem solving view of dreaming

    rosalind cartwRIGHT thought that dreams were used to find the RIGHT answers to life's problems
  57. William Dement
    med student interested in dreams REM sleep associated with dreaming sprayed water on the hands of people in REM and noted that if they didn't wake up, they would encorporate the water into their dream

    dEM sleep gives you wet willies
  58. sigmund freud
    wish fulfillment in dreams distinguishing between manifest and latent dream content levels of awareness... unconscious vs conscious
  59. Calvin hall
    analyzed content of dreams and concluded they're actually fairly mundane

    calvin hALL analyzed ALL of the dreams
  60. ernest hilgard
    hypnosis creates a disociation in consciousness

    hilgard is getting VERY sleepy... The hills have eyes that are getting VERY sleepy... the guard is getting VERY sleepy
  61. J Allan Hobson
    activation-synthesis model of dreaming

    Allan in J Allan Hobson's name is a SIDE EFFECT of him disliking his first name
  62. William James
    Stream of Consciousness
  63. development
    the sequence of age-realted changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
  64. zygote
    one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg
  65. prenatal period
    from conception to birth
  66. germinal stage
    the first phase of prenatal development encompassing the first two weeks after conception in human development
  67. placenta
    structure that allows oxygen and nutreints to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
  68. embryonic stage
    second stage of prenatal development lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month
  69. fetal stage
    from the second month til the end of pregnancy
  70. age of viability
    age at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birth usually 22 to 26 weeks with 22 at 14% and 26 at 80%
  71. Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS
    a collection of congential problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
  72. motor development
    progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
  73. cephalo-caudal trend
    head to food direction of motor development seen in babies that learn to crawl before they walk
  74. proximodistal trend
    center outward trend seen in babies turing their whole body to center their attention on something, but todlers use just their appendages.
  75. maturation
    development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
  76. developmental norms
    indicated the typical (median) age at which individuals display behaviors and abilities... but they shouldn't be taken as when a baby HAS TO do something... they're averages
  77. temperment
    characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
  78. longitudinal design
    observes one group of participants repeatededly over a period of time
  79. cross-sectional design
    compare groups of participants of differeing age at a single point in time
  80. cohort effects
    differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods
  81. easy children
    40% happy babies
  82. slow to warm up children
    15% less happy babies
  83. difficlut children
    10% glum, erratic babies
  84. attachment
    the close emotional bond of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
  85. seaparation anxiety
    emotional distress seen in many infants when they are spearated from people whit whom they have formed an attachment develops around 2-3 mo and peaks off around 14-18 mo
  86. stage
    developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are eshibited and ccertain capacities become established
  87. Erikson stages
    trust vs mistrust autonomy vs shame and doubt inititive vs guilt industry vs inferiority identity vs confusion intimacy vs isolation generality vs self absoprtion integrity vs despair
  88. cognitive development
    transtions in youngster's patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.
  89. piagets stages
    sensorimotor period preoperational period concrete operational period formal operational period
  90. object permanence
    when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
  91. conservation
    awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearnace
  92. centration
    tehndency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
  93. irreversibility
    inability to invision reversion of an action
  94. egocentrism
    thinkging is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's view point... ie, Jasmine... does your sister Laurel have a sister? Nope.
  95. animism
    thinking all things are living
  96. zone of proximal development
    the gap between what a learnier can accomplish alone and what her of she can acheive with guidence from more skilled partner
  97. Kohlbergs stages
    punishment orientation naive reward orentation good boy oreintation autority oreintation social contract oreintation individual principles and conscience oreintation
  98. pubescence
    the two year span before puberty where chanves leading to physical and sexual changes take place
  99. secondary sex characteristics
    physical features that distinguich one sex from the other byt rhtat are not essential for reproduction ie bigger muscles, voice drop, and facial hair for boys
  100. puberty
    stage during which sexual functions reach maturity
  101. primary sex characteristics
    structures necessary for reproduction
  102. menarche
    the first occurence of mensturation
  103. spermarche
    first ejaculation
  104. James Marcia's four statuses of identity
    Identitydiffusion identity moratorium identity foreclosure identitiy acheivement
  105. dementia
    abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment
  106. fluid intelligence
    involves basic reasoning ability, memory capacity, and speed of info processiong
  107. crystallized intelligence
    involves the ability to apply acquirred knowledge and skills in problem solving
  108. sex
    biologically based catergories of male or female
  109. gender
    culturally constructed catergories of male or female
  110. gender stereotypes
    widely held beliefes about female's and male's abilities personality traits, and social behaviors.
  111. gender differencies
    actual disparities between the sexes in typical behavior or average ability
  112. socilization
    acquisition of the norms and behaviors expected of people in a particular society
  113. gender roles
    expectations about what is appropoiate behavior for each sex
  114. mary ainsworth
    types of attachment... secure is the most common then there are also anxious ambivalent and avoidant

    Ainsworth says it's WORTH it to try to develop secure attachment
  115. john bowlby
    there is an evolutionary basis for attachment... babies are programmed to do stuff that will help elicit responses that will foster attachment and caregivers are programmed to respond to the babies in ways that will foster attachment

    John bowlby is the father of malia bowlby-trick she wore a BOW when she was little, that made her cute, that made his internal programming want to protect her
  116. Erik Erikson
    personality develops over the whole life in eight stages that involve conflicting tendencies

    Erik vs erikson plus eight.
  117. Harry Harlow
    attachment of infant rheus monkeys where the babies would run to the mother that could provide tactile comfort, rather than food when introduced to something new

    Harry Harlow played with the HARRY mokeys, and saw that attachment to the wire mother weR LOW
  118. Jerome Kagen
    inhibited or uninhibited temperment

    even if you usually have an inhibited temperment, you'll usually loosen up at a KAGEr
  119. Lawrence Kohlberg
    Stages of morality development that involve three levels pre/conventional/post, each with two stages... so six stages total

    Although Kohlberg can be broken into two parts that make him sound cold, he was actually a very moral person
  120. Jean Piaget
    child development of problem solving in four stages

    PiAGEt says that their AGE doesn't really matter, but that each child goes through these problem solving stages in the same order
  121. Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess
    Longitudinal study of temperment that became the landmark of the separation of the three temperment types: easy, slow to warm up, and difficult

    THOMAS is easy to remember, but STELLA will be slower to recall, and CHESS is a difficult game
  122. Lev Vygotsky
    Sociocultural theory children's cognitive development is fueled by social interations with parents and others and culture determines how cognitive processes unfold. also developed concept of zone of proximal development

    Vygotsky could unfold in multiple spellings on the test, so hopefulmy spelling will be proximal enough that it'll be counted correctly.
  123. personality
    an individual's unique constellation of sonsistent behavioral traits
  124. personalitiy trait
    a durable disposition to behavice in aparticular way in a variety of situations
  125. factor analysis
    correlation among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
  126. the big five
    extraversion neuroticism openness to experience agreeableness conscientiousness
  127. psychodynamic theories
    all the diverse theories that descended for the work of Sigmund Freud which focus on unconsious mental forces
  128. id
    primitive instinctive component of personalit that operates according the the pleasure principle
  129. pleasure principle
    demands instant gratification of urges
  130. primary processing
    primitive, illogical, irrational, fantasy based thinking
  131. ego
    decsision making component of mersonality that operates according to the reality principle
  132. reality principle
    seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
  133. secondary process thinking
    relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving
  134. superego
    moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
  135. conscious
    whatever one is aware of
  136. preconscious
    material just beneath the surface of awareness and is easily retrieved, ie middle name
  137. unconscious
    below level of awareness that contains thoughts, memories, and desires
  138. defense mechanism
    unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasent emotions such as anxiety and guilt
  139. rationalization
    creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior ie, i have to steal this food or my child will starve because I have no other means for obtaining food
  140. repression
    keeping distressing thoughts and feeligs buried in the unconsious
  141. projection
    attributing one's thoughts and feelsing onto others... ie you like your co-worker, but you have a boyfriend, so the sexual tension is there because HE wants YOU instead of the way it really is
  142. displacement
    diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target ie Tani get's all of my anger
  143. reaction formation
    behaving in a wat that's exactly opposite of on'es true feelings ie homophobic reations because th maybe sort of have a crush on their best friend
  144. regression
    reversion to immature patterns of behavior
  145. identification
    bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary of really allience with some person or group ie, idolizing kelly clarkson or joining a country club
  146. pshycosexual stages
    developmental periods whth a characteristic sexual focus that elave their mark on adult personality
  147. fixation
    a failure to move forwads from one stage to another as expected
  148. oedipal complex
    children manifest eriotically tinged desires for teir opposite sex parent accompanied by feelings of hostility towards their same sex parent
  149. anal.ytical psychology
    Carl Jung's version of Frued's psychoanalytic theory
  150. Personal unconscious
    material that is not within on'es consious awareness because it's been repressed, much like freuds unconsious
  151. collective unconsious
    not actal memories, but a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral pasts
  152. archetype
    emotinally charged images and thought forms that have universal meanings
  153. mandala
    magic circle
  154. individual psychology
    belief that source of human motivation is a striving for superiority
  155. striving for superiority
    universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
  156. compensation
    efforts to overcome imagined of real inferioirities bdeveloping one's abilities
  157. birth order
    The order in which someone is born into a family. ie, I am a first child, Laurel is a second and and a youngest child. first suggested that it might play a role in personality by Alfred Adler due to always being in his big brother's shadow.
  158. the five psychosexal stages
    oral anal pahllic latent genital
  159. behaviorism
    theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
  160. personality according to skinner
    a collection of response tendencies (consistent patterns of behavior) that are tied to various stimulus situations
  161. social learning theory or social cognitive theory
    A vein in behaviorism that acknowledges the fact that people very much are cognitive beings and that cognitive processes help shape a person's behavior
  162. reciprocal determinism
    the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
  163. behavoiral residue
    things like books or food that give clues to a person's personality
  164. observational learning
    occurs when an organism resonding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models
  165. model
    a person who's beahvoir is observed by another
  166. situational specificity
    people act one way in a certain situation, but very differently in another situation
  167. self-efficacy
    on'es belief about on'es ability to perform beahviors that should lead to expected outcome...
  168. humanism
    a therortical approach that emphasizes the unique qualities of hmans especially their freedom, and potential for personal growth.
  169. pehnomenlogical approach
    assumes that one has to appreicate individuals personal, subjective esperiences to trulyunderstand their beahvionr
  170. person-centered psychology
    Carl rogers introduced this type of psychology that focuses on people's subjective views
  171. self concept
    collection of beliefs tabout one's won nature, unique qualities, and typial behavior
  172. incongruence
    degree of disparity between on'es self concept and once's actual experience
  173. heirarchy of needs
    systematic arrangement of needs, according to priorty, in which basic needs must be met before less basic meeds are aroused.
  174. need for self actualization
    the need to fulfill on'es potential
  175. self-actulizing persons
    peooiple with exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth
  176. Terror management theory
    tries to explain why people need self seteem and goes on to say that we need it because when we're faced with our eminent death, we need a way to cope with that. Our culture is what saves us by providing continuity before us and after us
  177. mortality salience
    thinking about one's own death
  178. self-reportive inventories
    personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behaviors
  179. Minesota Multiphasic personality inventory
    The most widely used self report that measures 10 personality traits that... when exhibited in an extreme degree.... are thought to be symptoms of disorders
  180. 16PF
    187 item scale that assesses 16 basic dimensions of personality
  181. NEO inventory
    personality test that looks at the big five
  182. projective tests
    ask participants to respond to vauge, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs feelings and personality traits ie inkblot tests
  183. alfred adler
    developed individual psychology based on the notion that people's motivation is striving for superiority and claimed that birth order has an effect on personality

    ALFREDo is superior to spaghetti because it came Af/dt/lER
  184. Albert Bandura
    Helped reshape the theoretical landscape of behaviorism by acknowledging that cognitive processes shape someone's behaviors. Suggested that people's behaviors are largely influenced by observational learning

    I THINK I could learn to speak with a spanish accent by observing antonio BANDURA
  185. Hans Eysenck
    believed that personality was based on a heirarchy of traits, but that those traits are largely genetic

    I inherited my HANdS EYeS and NeCK from my mother because they're higher than my toes
  186. sigmund freud
    id ego superego theory that deals with levels of consciousness
  187. Carl Jung
    Similar to Freud's psychoalaytic theory in the fact that there are differing levels of consciousness, however, includes a second level of unconscious thought that includes inherited symbols and stuff that resonates with everyone

    we found these symbols in the JUNGle, in caves, and all over the world
  188. Abraham Maslow
    developed the theory of self actualization that states there is a hierarchy of needs. things like needing to go to the bathroom will overcome your need to be the worlds best actress. However, everyone is striving to attain the highest level that they can

    Some people believe that going to MASs will alLOW them to become the best that they can be
  189. robert mcrae and paul costa
    came up with the big five

    both MCRAE and COSTA have five letters in their last names
  190. k
  191. Walter Mischel
    claimed that people act one way in a certain situation, and differently in a separate situation

    MISCHELle from full house acts like a brat towards her sisters, but then puts on her goo goo eyes for her daddy
  192. carl rogers
    Humanist approach to psychology that bases things on people's subjective views of the world and states that if parents love their children unconditionally, there will be higher rates of congruency between the actual experience and a person's self-concept

    Mr. ROGERS seemed to have been loved unconditionally because his rate of congruency is very high
  193. B. F. Skinner
    Behaviorist that believed people's personalities were a symptom of operant conditioning. ie, if a person tells a joke and people laugh, they're more likely to tell jokes and become a "funny" person
Card Set
Psych 101 test 4
UAS Psych 101 test 4 from psychology themes and variations eigth edition key terms and key people from chapters 5, 11, and 12