1. In which abdominopelvic quadrant is teh pancreas located?
  2. which vein brings blood full of nutrients from the digestive tract to the liver, before it enters the systemic circulation
    hepatic portal vein
  3. which organ can regenerate itself?
  4. which organ secretes the enzyme trypsin?
  5. this organ does not secrete digestive enzymes
  6. which organ secretes bile acids
  7. what hormones secreted by the pancreas are involved in blood glucose regulation
  8. which endocrine gastroinstestinal regulatory peptide stimulates gallbladder contractiona and pancreatic secretions in response to peptides, amino acids, and fatty acids in the duodenum and jejunum
    cholecystokinin (CCK)
  9. which endocrine gastrointestinal regulatory regulatory peptide stimulates biliary and pancreatic bicarbonate secretions in response to acid in the duodenum
  10. what are liver cells called?
  11. what autosomal recessive congenital metabolic disorder is characterized by progressive decline of lung and pancreas function due to abnormal exocrine body secretions plugging up passage ways
    cystic fibrosis
  12. what is hepatomegaly
    enlarged liver
  13. what is hepatitis?
    acute/chronic inflammation of liver due to injury
  14. what is liver steatosis?
    excessive fat accumulation causing deteroration "fatty liver"
  15. what is cirrhosis?
    irreversible destruction of the liver
  16. what is bilirubin?
    pigment formed during breakdown of hemoglobin and is excreted in the bile
  17. what is jaundice?
    yellowing of the skin due to elevated bilirubin levels in blood and tissues
  18. what is encephalopathy?
    altering of the brain structure and deteroration of mental function
  19. what is wernicke's encephalopathy?
    inflammation of the brain with hemmorage because of the result of thiamin deficiancy
  20. what is cholelithiasis?
    presennce of cholesterol stones in the gallbladder or bile duct
  21. what is a gallstone?
    lithiasis in the gallbladder or bile duct
  22. what is cholestasis?
    flow bile> becomes concentrated -> stone development
  23. what is cholecystitis?
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  24. what is a cholecystectomy?
    removal of the gallbladder
  25. what is hemochromatosis?
    inheritated disorder that causes absorbtion of excessive amount of iron in tissues and organs
  26. what is pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  27. what is a pancreatectomy?
    removal of part or all of the pancreas
  28. what may trigger the formation of gallstones?
    • -bile is supersaturated
    • -no fat in diet
    • -cholestasis
  29. what factors and disease conditions are associated with an increase risk of the formation of cholelithiasis (stones in the gallbladder)
    • -women
    • -over age 40
    • -over weight
    • -rapid weight loss
    • -increased # of pregnancies
  30. what factors are commonly involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis?
    • -alcoholism
    • -viral infection
    • -lack of blood flow
    • -hemacrotosis
    • -toxic agents
  31. what is the most frequent cause of chronic liver disease?
  32. what are the clinical manifests of hepatitis?
    • anorexia
    • nutrient def
    • malase
    • fever
  33. what are the complications of hepatitis?
    • severe hypoglycemia
    • immunosuppressed
    • liver failure
  34. what are the clincal mainfests of cirrohosis?
    • anorexia
    • nausea
    • vomitting
    • wt. loss
    • jaundice
  35. purpose of nutrition care in liver disease?
    • maintain nutritional status
    • prevent condition from getting worse
  36. why are clients with liver disease at risk of protein-energy malnutrion
    • anorexia
    • don't digest/absorb
    • nausea
    • vomiting
  37. best method to determine the energy needs of clients with liver disease?
    • indirect calrimetry
    • carbon dioxide/oxygen exchange
  38. what biochemical data may help identify the presence of liver disease?
    AST and ALT levels
  39. what biochemical measures are useful when assessing nutritional status of clients with liver disease
    • low hemoglobin
    • low hematacrit
    • low mean corpuscular volume
  40. how is the liver examined for proper diagnosis when liver disease is suspected from sign,symptoms,tests
    • abdominal ultrasound
    • liver scanning
    • liver biopsy
  41. what is the main dietary recommendation post cholescystectomy?
    fat restriction (25-50g)
  42. how is alcoholic liver disease managed?
    • multi team
    • promotion of alcohol avoidance
    • adequete nutrients
  43. what diet is recommended for liver disorders such as hepatitis, cirrosis, biliary disease?
    • individualized
    • high calorie
    • high protein
  44. which clients with liver disease are suseptable to fat maldigestion? require fat restricted diet?
  45. when are fluid and sodium restrictions necessary in clients with liver disease??
  46. which vitamins and minerals may need to be supplemented in clients with liver disease due to status and def. ?
    • thiamin
    • folacin
    • calcium
    • vit. D
    • vit. B6
    • vit. C
  47. treatment used for hepatic encephalopathy. Acts as a laxative
  48. signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis?
    • LUQ abdominal pain
    • nausea
    • vomitting
    • anorexia
    • increased amylase
    • increased lipase
    • increased AST
    • increased blood glucose
  49. most severe complication of acute pancreatitis
    • rapid intense inflammation
    • sudden onset
    • death of cells in pancreas
    • necrotizing pancreatitis
  50. MNT for clients with chronic pancreatitis
    • avoid alcohol
    • maintain body wt.
    • increase calorie
    • increase protein
    • 40-60% carb
  51. MNT for clients with acute pancreatitis?
    • NPO
    • intravenous fluids and electrolytes
    • enternal nutrition
  52. recurrent insults followed by repair of the liver tissue can cause fiberosis and scarring known as ______, irreversible damage... usually occurs with long term liver dysfunction
  53. what is the effect of long-term alcohol abuse on the liver
    • stores fat -> fatty liver
    • hepatitis
    • cirrosis
  54. how hepatic steatosis becomes cirrohosis
    • fat builds on liver
    • cells become large
    • continue behaviors with healing
  55. hepatitis a,b,c,d,e differences
    • hep a - inflammation by virus - transmission = food/water
    • hep b- '' '' - '' = blood, semen
    • hep c- '' '' - '' = blood products
    • hep d- '' '' - '' = serum hepatitis
    • hep e- '' '' - '' = water
  56. what is biliary cirrhosis?
    irreversible destruction, damage in bile duct and liver
  57. how advanced liver disease alters metabolism of carbohydrates?
    blood glucose becomes low
  58. how advanced liver disease alters metabolism of lipids?
    • fat buildup
    • no lipoproteins
    • steatorhea
    • vitamin def. = ADEK
  59. how advanced liver disease alters metabolism of proteins?
    • nitrogen buildup of ammonia
    • coma
    • encephalopathy
  60. how is hepatic encephalopathy treated?
    • lower protein intake
    • lactulose
  61. what are clinical manifests of severe alcoholism
    • fat in liver
    • cant make lipoprotein
    • alcohol toxic to tissue
    • impair folate, thiamin, vit. C
  62. diet therapy for management of cystic fibrosis?
    • enteric coating supplement
    • high nutrient diet
    • multivitamin
  63. _______ is synthesized by the liver and is the main blood protein, used as a marker of liver function
  64. albumin half life?
    12-18 days
  65. complications associated with alcoholic cirrhosis?
    • impaired glucose tolerance
    • encephalopathy
    • steatorrhea
    • gallstones
  66. dietary recommendations for clients with mild chronic cholecystitis with symptomatic gallstones
    • low fat diet
    • small frequent meals
    • avoid food intolerances (gas forming)
  67. functions of the liver for carbohydrate?
    • galactose and fructose from digestion are converted to glucose
    • store glucose as glycogen
    • synthesis fat from carbohydrate
    • produce new glucose from precursers
    • maintain blood glucose
    • gluconeogensis when fasting
  68. functions of liver for protein?
    • convert amino acids to substrates
    • detoxify ammonia by converting it to urea for kidney to excrete
    • synthsis of vital body proteins ex. albumin
  69. functions of liver for fat?
    • fatty acids from diet and adipose tissue are converted in liver
    • ketone bodies produced
    • synthesizes triglycerides and phospholipids, cholesterol, bile acids and lipoproteins
    • bile is needed to emulsify fat for digestion
  70. function of liver for vitamins?
    • storage, activation and transportation of vitamins and minerals
    • stores all fat soluble vitamins
    • OH added to vit. D in process of activation of vit. D
  71. alcoholism causes what deficiencies?
    • folacin
    • thiamin
    • vit. c
    • vit. d
    • vit. k
    • vit. a
    • calcium
    • potassium
  72. function of pulmonary system
    • gas exchange
    • acid base balance of body
  73. ___________ and _______________ are interdependent
    • nutritional status
    • pulmonary function
  74. malnutrition on pulmonary status effects what nutrients?
    • vit. c
    • vit. a
    • protein
    • zinc
    • vit B6
    • decreased surfactant
  75. symptoms of pulmonary disease?
    • full really fast
    • anorexia
    • wt. loss
    • cough
    • shortness of breath while eating
  76. what is COPD?
    presence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema leading to airway obstruction
  77. primary cause of COPD?
  78. what is emphysema?
    abnormal permanent enlargement of alveoli accompied by destruction of walls
  79. what is bronchitis?
    inflammation of bronchial mucus membrane
  80. treatment of COPD?
    • lifestyle changes
    • exercise
    • good nutrition
    • drugs
  81. pathophysiology of fatty liver to alcoholism?
    • lack of NAD
    • fatty acids cant be transported out of liver
    • no lipoproteins
    • extra ATP built up as fat
  82. hgb and hct are depressed and MCV is elevated why?
    • cant make protein
    • folate def.
    • megaloblastic cells
  83. what is hyperbilirubinemia?
    high bilirubin levels
  84. what is ascites?
    excess fluid buildup in tissues
  85. what is hypocalcemia?
    low blood calcium
Card Set
mnt liver