307- Exam 2

  1. What are some commonly used substances that can compromise the health of mother and fetus during pregnancy?
    Nonprescription drugsPsychoactive drugs- alcohol tobacco, heroin, meth, marijuana, antidepressant pillsNicotineAlcohol
  2. What are the risks of smoking to during pregnancy?
    Increases the risk of fetal morality, low birth weigh, and infant morality
  3. What do industrialized countries have that help parents have healthy babies?
  4. After the first year, what percentage of premature infants display developmental challenges?
    10 % of prematurely born infants display significant development challenges5% are seriously disabled38 of children who were born prematurely have mild problems that cal for special education interventions
  5. Mothers of Asian cultures receive considerable support from whom?
    Asian mothers receive assistance from family from extended family members
  6. What experiences contribute to the development of secure attachment in babies?
    Sensitive, more contingently responsive, more consistent, more likely to hold their infants, less intrusive, less tense, and less irritable

    -parents expect their children to develop self-regulated behavior early in life with little guidance from their parents

    -help by singing to them, read a book, or rocking them to sleep helps develop self-regulated behavior
  7. Why may toddlers resist going to bed?
    Toddlers might be sleeping too much during the day6 hours a day is too much
  8. What makes breastfeeding so important?
    Breast milk has the better nutrition that can’t get from formulaColostrum- the thick high-caolic fluid sereted by the women’s breast at the birth of her child

    benefits: high in carbohydrates, prtein, and antibodies helps past first stool

    Supply and demand
  9. What are gross and fine motor skills?
    Fine Motor Skills- smaller muscles in arms, hands, and fingersGross Motor Skills- Jumping, running, sitting, walking, kick
  10. What are the characteristics of a securely attached toddler?
    Social-emotional development

    Show more make-believe play, greater enthusiasm, flexibility, and persistence in problem solving

    High self-esteem, socially competent, cooperative, popular, and empathic
  11. How does a child become self-reliant?
    Ability to behave in ways that are considered by parents in young children refers to the ability to behave in ways that are considered by parents and other caregivers to be acceptable

    parents encouragement helps develop self-reliance
  12. What are the results of a diet high in sugar?
    iron-deficiency anemia- chronic fatigue
  13. Who is more likely to feed their children a high sugar diet?
    low income families are more likely, although, families of all social classes are all likely to give children high sugar foods
  14. What should parents remember when talking to their preschooler?
    Speak clearly and face to face

    use short concrete sentences, state on request or idea at a time, or idea at a time

    do not use metaphors , use only literal comprehension
  15. Why do preschool children have a difficult time understanding the speech of others?
    children may learn words in different context so, child may not be understanding
  16. How should parents react or not react to bed-wetting?
    Parents should not overact or hold children responsible

    Parents should adopt a detached attitude toward bedwetting, which attempts to control the outcome
  17. What is the benefit of older siblings on children?
    social development

    learning to resolving conflict

    social problem solving skills
  18. By what do school-aged children judge themselves?
  19. What is “coregulation”?
    Becomes a predominant aspect of appropriate child socialization during this developmental stage.

    it has been associated with fewer behavioral problems in school-ages children
  20. What starts to become more important in middle childhood?
    being accepted by peers
  21. What is the influence of authoritarian parenting on school-aged children?
    children have more positive relationships with their peers
  22. How do high-crime communities influence parenting?
    As crime get worse, parental support gets worse and parents usually end up using physical punishment
  23. What is the relationship between children and their involvement in sports?
    Activities provide opportunities for children to make and sustain positive peer relationships

    Achieving peer group status while broadening their scope of learning
  24. What can parents do to help prevent childhood obesity or help a child who is overweight?
    their eating habits as well as the types of food and drinks they consume

    their levels o of physical exercise

    the amount of time they spend watching television

    their parents attitudes about food
  25. What type of thinking increases during the school years?
    logical thinking
  26. How do parenting styles influence a child’s academic achievement?
    authoritative parenting style has the highest levels do academic achievement
  27. Which parenting style is associated with positive outcomes for adolescents of non-Western or ethnic minorities? How about American adolescents?
    Traditional Parenting Style that is mistaken for authoritarian- difference is traditional parenting combines high parental control with high parental responsiveness
  28. What most strongly influences an adolescent’s self-esteem?
    parent-adolescent relationships
  29. How can parents show that they love and support their adolescent?
    Noticing the things that adolescents care abut, spending quality time with them, asking them how the feel about thins, and including them in important family decisions can go a long way building their self-esteem
  30. What is Erikson’s stage for adolescence?
    Identity achievement- being able to establish a clear and definite sense of who one is and where on fits into one’s particular culture
  31. What are the possible results of parental inconsistency?
    lower school performance, delinquency, depression, and externalizing behavior
Card Set
307- Exam 2
HDF Exam 2