What are some commonly used substances that can compromise the health of mother and fetus during pregnancy?
Nonprescription drugsPsychoactive drugs- alcohol tobacco, heroin, meth, marijuana, antidepressant pillsNicotineAlcohol
What are the risks of smoking to during pregnancy?
Increases the risk of fetal morality, low birth weigh, and infant morality
What do industrialized countries have that help parents have healthy babies?
After the first year, what percentage of premature infants display developmental challenges?
10 % of prematurely born infants display significant development challenges5% are seriously disabled38 of children who were born prematurely have mild problems that cal for special education interventions
Mothers of Asian cultures receive considerable support from whom?
Asian mothers receive assistance from family from extended family members
What experiences contribute to the development of secure attachment in babies?
Sensitive, more contingently responsive, more consistent, more likely to hold their infants, less intrusive, less tense, and less irritable
-parents expect their children to develop self-regulated behavior early in life with little guidance from their parents
-help by singing to them, read a book, or rocking them to sleep helps develop self-regulated behavior
Why may toddlers resist going to bed?
Toddlers might be sleeping too much during the day6 hours a day is too much
What makes breastfeeding so important?
Breast milk has the better nutrition that can’t get from formulaColostrum- the thick high-caolic fluid sereted by the women’s breast at the birth of her child
benefits: high in carbohydrates, prtein, and antibodies helps past first stool
Supply and demand
What are gross and fine motor skills?
Fine Motor Skills- smaller muscles in arms, hands, and fingersGross Motor Skills- Jumping, running, sitting, walking, kick
What are the characteristics of a securely attached toddler?
Show more make-believe play, greater enthusiasm, flexibility, and persistence in problem solving
High self-esteem, socially competent, cooperative, popular, and empathic
How does a child become self-reliant?
Ability to behave in ways that are considered by parents in young children refers to the ability to behave in ways that are considered by parents and other caregivers to be acceptable
parents encouragement helps develop self-reliance
What are the results of a diet high in sugar?
iron-deficiency anemia- chronic fatigue
Who is more likely to feed their children a high sugar diet?
low income families are more likely, although, families of all social classes are all likely to give children high sugar foods
What should parents remember when talking to their preschooler?
Speak clearly and face to face
use short concrete sentences, state on request or idea at a time, or idea at a time
do not use metaphors , use only literal comprehension
Why do preschool children have a difficult time understanding the speech of others?
children may learn words in different context so, child may not be understanding
How should parents react or not react to bed-wetting?
Parents should not overact or hold children responsible
Parents should adopt a detached attitude toward bedwetting, which attempts to control the outcome
What is the benefit of older siblings on children?
learning to resolving conflict
social problem solving skills
By what do school-aged children judge themselves?
What is “coregulation”?
Becomes a predominant aspect of appropriate child socialization during this developmental stage.
it has been associated with fewer behavioral problems in school-ages children
What starts to become more important in middle childhood?
being accepted by peers
What is the influence of authoritarian parenting on school-aged children?
children have more positive relationships with their peers
How do high-crime communities influence parenting?
As crime get worse, parental support gets worse and parents usually end up using physical punishment
What is the relationship between children and their involvement in sports?
Activities provide opportunities for children to make and sustain positive peer relationships
Achieving peer group status while broadening their scope of learning
What can parents do to help prevent childhood obesity or help a child who is overweight?
their eating habits as well as the types of food and drinks they consume
their levels o of physical exercise
the amount of time they spend watching television
their parents attitudes about food
What type of thinking increases during the school years?
How do parenting styles influence a child’s academic achievement?
authoritative parenting style has the highest levels do academic achievement
Which parenting style is associated with positive outcomes for adolescents of non-Western or ethnic minorities? How about American adolescents?
Traditional Parenting Style that is mistaken for authoritarian- difference is traditional parenting combines high parental control with high parental responsiveness
What most strongly influences an adolescent’s self-esteem?
How can parents show that they love and support their adolescent?
Noticing the things that adolescents care abut, spending quality time with them, asking them how the feel about thins, and including them in important family decisions can go a long way building their self-esteem
What is Erikson’s stage for adolescence?
Identity achievement- being able to establish a clear and definite sense of who one is and where on fits into one’s particular culture
What are the possible results of parental inconsistency?
lower school performance, delinquency, depression, and externalizing behavior