Widely used by qualitative researchers.
Researchers puposively select individuals who they believe will be good sources of information.
Purposive criterion sampling
When there are a number of criteria to be applied in the selction of a sample.
Description of the sample e.g., age, race, education, socio-econmic status.
The point which it is noted that parcipants responses are closely the same or the same. No new information are expected = final sample size.
Most widely used instrument for QL R.
Face-to-face interviews using a recorder.
Interviewer may asked questions other than prepared to help elict better responses from the participant.
Written directions for conducting the interview as well as a standard set of predetermined questions to be asked of participants.
Examining perceptions to acquire knowledge.
Usually 6-12 partcipants who are gathered to discuss a topic.
reveals the evolution of perceptions in a social context.
Group leader of focus group (as opposed to interviewer) who sets the tone of the environment (nonthreatening) with predetermined questions.
The QL Rr observes indvs as an outsider.
Ex. sitting in the back of classroom to observe S/T interaction. Like to bx differently bc they know they're being watched.
Makes observations as an insider.
A T who is also a Rr is a school enviornment.
Research on culture issuses.
Use multiple sources for obataining data on the research topic.
The method used can be triangulated.
Individual interveiws with parents, then focus group with same parents.
Research is gather from member of research team.
Inductive method of analysis that can lead to theories of behavior.
The grounded theory approach starts with open coding.
At this stage the transcripts of the interview are examined for distinct ideas and are colored coded accordingly.
The second step in grounded theory
At this stage, transcripts and any other data gathered at the interview are reexamined to identify the relationships between the categories and themes during open coding.
The final stages of grounded theory.
The main overarching category under which the other categories and subcategories belong. They also attempt to describe the process that leads to the relationships identified in axial coding.
Constantly comparing each new element of the data with all previous elements that have been coded in order to establish and refine categories.
Consensual qualitative research (CQR)
Strives to have a team of researchers arrive at a concensus on the meaning of the data collected.
code into domains - 1st step in CQR. Segmenting the data, team discuss and refine domains.
develop core ideas within domains - 2nd step. Writting short summaries that reduce the original ideas or participants to fewer words.
cross-analysis - 3rd step. Core ideas are grouped into categories based on similarities.
In CQR, done by examinng data in additon to the interview transcripts if it is available.
Internal stability (CQR)
done by determining the extent to which each category was general, typical, or variant.
Domains that apply to * participants are called: general (all); typical (more than half); variant (less than half).
reviews the work of the research team after each major step in a study.
Structure of Research Report
Title (author's name/affiliation)
Abstract (intro/lit rew) [brief summary 100-150 words]
- participants [state the number of participants, how they were selected, and selected demographics]
- instrumentation [measuring tools used are described]
- procedure (opt) [physical steps taken]
- data analysis (opt) [method used to analyze data is described]
Structure of Research Report II
Introduction - contains a lit rew