test IV

  1. pain is _______
  2. what are the major types of pain?
    • -acute
    • -chronic
    • -nocicetive
    • -neuropathic
    • -phantom
  3. what are observable indicators of pain
    • -moaning
    • -crying
    • -irritability
    • -inaility to sleep
    • -grimacing
    • -frowing
    • -restlessness
    • -rigid posture in bed
  4. what should the pain assessment include
    pain scale
  5. pain is considered what vital sign
    5th vital sign
  6. pain management can include
    • -analgesic medication
    • -TENS
    • -binders
    • -heat and cold application
    • -relaxation
    • -biofeedback
    • -distraction
    • -guided imagery
    • -meditation
    • -music
    • -hypnosis
    • -massage
  7. what are the two stages of sleep?
    • -non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
    • -rapid eye movement (REM)
  8. what are the sleeping disorders
    • -insomnia
    • -sleep apnea
    • -narcolepsy
  9. what are some factors that affect sleep?
    • -shift work
    • -jet lag
    • -caffeine
    • -nicotine
    • -alcohol consumption
    • -exercise
    • -enviromental factors
    • -stress
    • -illness
  10. feeling of discomfort strong enough to be intrusive and to affect or interfere with normal activity
  11. endogenous, naturally occuring, opiate-like peptides that reduce or block the perception of pain
  12. the gate control theory was first described by who?
    Melzack and Wall
  13. what is the gate control theory?
    view of pain transmission as being controlled by a gate mechanism in the central nervous system
  14. what factors should be considered when assessing pain
    • -pt verbal description of pain
    • -nonverbal signs of pain
    • -physiologic indicators of pain
  15. pain that is usually associated with an injury, medical condition, or surgical procedure
    acute pain
  16. pain that is of short duration, lasting from a few hours to a few days
    acute pain
  17. name some injuries causing acute pain
    • -burns
    • -bone fractures
    • -muscle strains
  18. name some medical conditions causing acute pain
    • -pneumonia
    • -sickle cell crisis
    • -angina
    • -herpes zoster
    • -inflammation
    • -infections
    • -blockages
  19. what are some words that can describe acute pain
    • -aching
    • -throbbing
    • -searing
  20. what vital measurements can be accompanied with pain
    • -increased heart rate
    • -increased blood pressure
    • -increased respiratory rate
  21. pain that can continue for months or possibly years
    chronic pain
  22. what are some descriptive terms that can desribe chronic pain
    • -dull
    • -constant
    • -shooting
    • -tingling
    • -burning
  23. the increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate is often absent in what type of pain
    chronic pain
  24. pain that involves injury to tissue in which receptors are located
    nociceptive pain
  25. what are the receptors in nociceptive pain called
  26. where can nociceptors be found
    • -skin
    • -joints
    • -organs
  27. what are the four phases of pain associated with nociceptive pain?
    • 1st phase- transduction
    • 2nd phase-transmission
    • 3rd phase- perception
    • 4th phase- modulation
  28. what is the first phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
    1st phase is transduction, it begins when tissue damage causes the release of substances that stimulate the nociceptors and start the sensation of pain
  29. what is the second phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
    2nd phase is transmission; it involves movement of the pain sensation to the spinal cord.
  30. what is the third phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
    3rd phase perception; it occurs when the pain reaches the brain and the pain is recognized
  31. what is the fourth phase of nociceptive pain?
    what is taken place in this phase?
    4th phase is modulation; it occurs when neurons in the brain send signals back down the spinal cord by release of neurotransmitters
  32. what are drugs that interfere with the transmission phase?
  33. drugs that block neurotransmitters uptake work in which phase?
    modulation stage
  34. pain that is usually associated with a dysfunction of the nervous system, specifically an abnormality in the processing of sensations
    neuropathic pain
  35. diabetes, guillain-barre syndrome, cancer, hiv, and nutritional deficiencies are associated with which type of pain
    neuropathic pain
Card Set
test IV