pain is _______
what are the major types of pain?
what are observable indicators of pain
- -inaility to sleep
- -rigid posture in bed
what should the pain assessment include
pain is considered what vital sign
5th vital sign
pain management can include
- -analgesic medication
- -heat and cold application
- -guided imagery
what are the two stages of sleep?
- -non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
- -rapid eye movement (REM)
what are the sleeping disorders
- -sleep apnea
what are some factors that affect sleep?
- -shift work
- -jet lag
- -alcohol consumption
- -enviromental factors
feeling of discomfort strong enough to be intrusive and to affect or interfere with normal activity
endogenous, naturally occuring, opiate-like peptides that reduce or block the perception of pain
the gate control theory was first described by who?
Melzack and Wall
what is the gate control theory?
view of pain transmission as being controlled by a gate mechanism in the central nervous system
what factors should be considered when assessing pain
- -pt verbal description of pain
- -nonverbal signs of pain
- -physiologic indicators of pain
pain that is usually associated with an injury, medical condition, or surgical procedure
pain that is of short duration, lasting from a few hours to a few days
name some injuries causing acute pain
- -bone fractures
- -muscle strains
name some medical conditions causing acute pain
- -sickle cell crisis
- -herpes zoster
what are some words that can describe acute pain
what vital measurements can be accompanied with pain
- -increased heart rate
- -increased blood pressure
- -increased respiratory rate
pain that can continue for months or possibly years
what are some descriptive terms that can desribe chronic pain
the increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate is often absent in what type of pain
pain that involves injury to tissue in which receptors are located
what are the receptors in nociceptive pain called
where can nociceptors be found
what are the four phases of pain associated with nociceptive pain?
- 1st phase- transduction
- 2nd phase-transmission
- 3rd phase- perception
- 4th phase- modulation
what is the first phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
1st phase is transduction, it begins when tissue damage causes the release of substances that stimulate the nociceptors and start the sensation of pain
what is the second phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
2nd phase is transmission; it involves movement of the pain sensation to the spinal cord.
what is the third phase of nociceptive pain? what is taken place in this phase?
3rd phase perception; it occurs when the pain reaches the brain and the pain is recognized
what is the fourth phase of nociceptive pain?
what is taken place in this phase?
4th phase is modulation; it occurs when neurons in the brain send signals back down the spinal cord by release of neurotransmitters
what are drugs that interfere with the transmission phase?
drugs that block neurotransmitters uptake work in which phase?
pain that is usually associated with a dysfunction of the nervous system, specifically an abnormality in the processing of sensations
diabetes, guillain-barre syndrome, cancer, hiv, and nutritional deficiencies are associated with which type of pain