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    Genial tubercles. Radiopaque area in the midline, midway between the inferior border of the mandible and the apices of the incisors. Serve as attachments for the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles. May have radiolucent hole in center (lingual foramen), but not on this film. Note double rooted canine (red arrows).
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    Lingual foramen. Radiolucent “hole” in center of genial tubercles. Lingual nutrient vessels pass through this foramen
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    a = lingual foramen, b= genial tubercles, c=mental ridge, d= mental fossa
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    This film shows the expansion of the borders of the maxillary sinus through pneumatization (red arrows). This expansion increases with age and it may be accelerated as a result of chronic sinus infections. It is most commonly seen when the first molar is extracted prematurely, as in the film at right (the second and third molars have migrated anteriorly to close the space). The coronoid process is seen in the lower left-hand corner of each film. The green arrow identifies a sinus recess. Note the two distomolars in film at right (blue arrows).
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    The zygomatic process (green arrows) is a prominent U-shaped radiopacity. Normally the zygomatic bone posterior to this is very dense and radiopaque. In this patient, however, the maxillary sinus has expanded into the zygomatic bone and makes the area more radiolucent (red arrows). The coronoid process (orange arrow), the pterygoid plates (blue arrows) and the maxillary tuberosity (pink arrows) are also identified.
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    The maxillary sinus is evident anterior to the second molar (black arrows) but it disappears posteriorly due to the superimposition of the zygomatic bone. The orange arrows identify a mucous retention cyst (retention pseudocyst) within the sinus. (right) This film shows the coronoid process (green arrow) and a distomolar (blue arrow) that has erupted ahead of the third molar (red arrow). A distomolar is a supernumerary tooth that erupts distal (posterior) to the other molars.
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    Maxillary sinus. As seen in the above film, the floor of the maxillary sinus flows around the roots of the maxillary molars and premolars. The walls of the sinus may become very thin. As a result, sinusitis may put pressure on the superior alveolar nerves resulting in apparent tooth pain, even though the tooth is perfectly healthy. Note coronoid process (green arrow), zygomatic bone (blue arrow), sinus septum (yellow arrow) and neurovascular canal (orange arrows).
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    Zygomatic (malar) bone/process/arch. The zygomatic bone (white/black arrows) starts in the anterior aspect with the zygomatic process (blue arrow), which has a U-shape. The zygomatic bone extends posteriorly into the zygomatic arch (green arrow).
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    Hamular process (white arrows) and pterygoid plates (purple arrows). The hamular process is an extension of the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone, positioned just posterior to the maxillary tuberosity.
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    Coronoid process. A mandibular structure sometimes seen on the maxillary molar periapical film when using the bisecting angle technique with finger retention (The mouth is opened wide, moving the coronoid down and forward). Note the supernumerary molar.
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    Maxillary Tuberosity. The rounded elevation located at the posterior aspect of both sides of the maxilla. Aids in the retention of dentures.
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    a = maxillary tuberosity*, b = coronoid process c = hamular process d = pterygoid plates e = zygoma (dotted lines) f = maxillary sinus g = sinus recess * image of impacted third molar superimposed
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    Pneumatization. Expansion of sinus wall into surrounding bone, usually in areas where teeth have been lost prematurely. Increases with age.
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    Blue arrows identify radiopacity which is a mucous retention cyst. Note relatively recent premolar extraction sites. Green arrow points to neurovascular canal. The red arrows point to the nasolabial fold. The thicker cheek tissue makes the area more radiopaque posterior to the line.
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    Maxillary Sinus. An air-filled cavity lined with mucous membrane. Communicates with nasal cavity through 3-6 mm opening below middle concha. Red arrows point to neurovascular canal containing superior alveolar vessels and nerves.
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    Sinus recess. Increased area of radiolucency caused by outpocketing (localized expansion) of sinus wall. If superimposed over roots, may mimic pathology.
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    Sinus septum. This septum is composed of folds of cortical bone that arise from the floor and walls of the maxillary sinus, extending several millimeters into the sinus. In rare cases, the septum completely divides the sinus into separate compartments.
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    Malar (zygomatic) process. U or j-shaped radiopacity, often superimposed over the roots of the molars, especially when using the bisecting-angle technique. The red arrows define the lower border of the zygomatic bone
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    a = malar process, b = sinus recess, c = sinus septum, d = maxillary sinus
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    The red arrow identifies the lateral fossa. The pink arrow points to CPP (chronic periapical periodontitis = abscess, granuloma, etc.).
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    The maxillary sinus surrounds the root of the canine, which may be misinterpreted as pathology. The white arrows(right) indicate the floor of the nasal fossa. The maxillary sinus (red arrows) has pneumatized between the 2nd premolar and first molar
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    Soft Tissue of the nose Red arrows point to nasolabial fold. Also note the inverted Y.
Card Set
Intraoral 2 Radiology