What does agnostic mean?
Thinks that it is impossible to know the truth in matters such as God and future. There is no known ultimate reality. Find meaning in what they do or how they live. People bring meaning to what they do
What does atheist mean?
Do not believe in the existence of God, find meaning in life through work and interpersonal relationships. The absence i n the belief in deites. There are no deites, ther is no one ideology or set of behaviors that all atheists adhere to.
What are the benefits of spiritual health?
Caregivers carry less of a caregiver burden. HIV/AIDS pts who had more hope and meaning in life were more likely to follow medication regimens. Prayer can decrease physical stress for many people. Relaxation and guided imagery help the immune system to work better, reduce pain and anxiety.
What is spirituality?
- 8 Constructs
- existerntial reality
- beliefs and values
- inner strength
- inner peace and harmony
What is spiritual well-being?
- Vertical and horizontal axis
- Vertical-transcendent-between self and force outside time and space
- Horizontal-interpersonal-between others and environment
Explain faith & hope
- Can be a cultural or institutional religion
- Can be a relationship with a higher power-reasoning faith is a belief in something you have no proof of-trusting faith is when your belief causes you to live a certain way
- Hope is present when you look forward to something
- Hope motivates, enables us to persevere through hard times
What is spiritual distress?
- May question previously held belief
- symptoms include: anxiety, fear, guilt, anger, feelings of abandonment, depression, suicidal thoughts, self injury, and powerlessness
What is the nurse's role in spiritual health?
- Support spiritual health by:
- Showing acceptance of dignity and worth of each client
- Respecting clients beliefs and leaving bias behind you
- Explore spiritual needs with client
- Provide interventions that are congruent with clients individual beliefs
Explain things to do during a spiritual assessment
- Ask what revives them spiritually during hard times
- Ask about what/who they turn to in hard times
- What does client want as support for their religious or spiritual care
- What gives your client's life meaning
- How does illness or loss change meaning or purpose in life for client
- What helps them to feel satisfied with life
- Who or what is most important in your client's life at this time
- How has illness affected how client's life is lived right now
What can you do as a nurse for spiritual health promotion?
- Identify goal with client
- consider making time for reflection a priority despite physical priorities
- determine need for and facilitate access to appropriate spiritual provider
- provide a caring presence
- assist client with repairing
- if client's beliefs differ so greatly from the nurses that she cannot provide compassionate care, she should ask for another assignment
List a few things about spirituality
- It is a persons awareness of larger meaning life, divine being, internal motivating forces
- Spiritual pain:suffering is a loss of one's sense of personal integrity, fragmenting of ones sense of internal togetherness
- key elements of meaning and purpose of life, the needs for love relatedness and the problems of guilt and forgiveness
Explain a little bit about spirituality
- Basic dignity and worth of all humans
- deserve compassionate care
- encompasses human need to searchfor meaningful answers to questions abourt life, illness and death
- at the core is a persons deepest relationships with others, self and supreme being
How can nurses help suffering?
- Exploring with client what is spirituality
- Providing requested spiritual resources
- Suggesting alternatives or sharing beliefs wit out imposing values
What is the goal of spirituality?
- Holistic health practitioners believethat every person has a spirit that coexists with the physical body and that this spirit is the life spark that energizes the body
- Try to achieve balance in body, mind and spirit
What does religion mean?
Refers to specific practices, rites, and rituals of a persons professed religion
What would be a spiritual assessment?
- Assess the clients faith and beliefs
- Review the clients view of life, self responsibility and life satisfaction
- assess the extent of the clients fellowship and community
- review if client practices religions and rituals
What would spiritual distress entail?
- Demonstration of incongruity between professed beliefs and actions
- Can be associated with
- coping, depression, guilt, fear, anger, attempts to harm self, anxiety, suffering
What is sexuality?
- reflects a persons sense of femaleness or maleness
- needs to be considered in assessments, is often uncomfortable, but is an essential part of a persons being
What is gender identity?
- Sense of being masculine or feminine
- Under genetic and hormonal influences
What is gender role?
Way people act as a man or women
What is sexual orientation?
clear, persistent sexual preferences for person of 1 sex
What is sexual health?
The integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual, and social aspects of sexual being in ways that are positively enriching and that enhance personality communication and love
What would a sexual health assessment entail?
- Knowledge and attitude about sexuality
- Level of comfort/feelings of adequacy about own sexuality
- Perception of sex role and partners
- Typical sexual patterns/activites
- levelof interest/satisfaction
- physical health promotion affecting sexuality
- Sexual history (pregnancy, fertility, GU problems, STD, sexual abuse, relationship hx, spiritual beliefs
What are alterations in sexual health?
- Personal and emotional conflict
- Sexual dysfunction-secondary to medications
- Sexual abuse
What are some nursing diagnoses related to sexual health
- Ineffective coping
- Interrupted family processess
- Knowledge deficit-contraceptives/STI's
- Sexual dysfunction
- Ineffective sexuality pattern
- Social isolation
What is emotional comfort?
- Pleasant positive feeling
- State of relaxation
- Related to therapeutic interactions
- Increases with feeling of control by client
What is physical comfort?
- Most essential intervention of nurses
- Respond to reports of pain in a timely & effective manner
- Respect privacy and cultural values
- environment clean and comfortable
What is spiritual comfort?
- Help make connections in community
- What transcends death for client
- Hope near end of life is important
- Some attitudes and actions destroy hope
What is sleep comfort?
- Reduce minor irritants
- Differences between beds at home and in institutions
- in acute care consider pain/discomfort and alternative methods to control
- In LTC personal hygiene provides
What is pain/discomfort?
Subjective, affected by multiple factors, nonverbal communication gives objective data about pain
What to do during the nursing process
- Assess-does the client have pain? does the client have mobility limitations, does the client's LOC limit self-care ability to perform ADL's
- Analysis-what nursing diagnosis are related to comfort
- Planning and Intervention-what is client's priority, what interventions are culturally appropriate, what are some examples of interventions for physical comfort?
- Evaluation-Did comfort measures work? does anyting need to be modified, are there new problems to address
Describe self-concept:Core self
- What do you know about yourself that you don't need anybody else to tell you?
- Subjective image of self-conscious and unconscious
- directly affects how one feels about ones self
- directly affects self-esteem
What are self-concept dynamic & multiple factors?
- Ongoing perception interpretation of thoughts/feelings of others
- Personal and professional relationships
- Personality characteristics that affect self expectation
- Mastery of prior and new experiences
- Academic and job identity
- Ethnic, racial, and spiritual identity
- Perceived reactions of others to ones body
- Sense of competency
- Perception of events and effect on self
What does self-identity entail?
Interests, creations, choices, sexuality, values, beliefs, appearance, ethnicity, practices, habits, work/hobbies, family/friends, interests,conflicts/possessions
What does body image entail?
- Physical appearance, structure, function
- Affected by normal growth and development, aging, cognitive growth, society norms
What is role performance?
- Set of behaviors by which a person participates in a social group
- Involves expectations or standards or behaviors
- Need to be socialized to role "student nurse"
What is self-esteem?
- Individual overall feeling of self worth or emotional appraisal of self concept
- Hinges on love and approval
- The difference between the actual self concept and the ideal self
What are stressors affecting self concept?
- Any factor or change that threatens self esteem, body image, role or identity (heart attack)
- Learn patterns of behaviors to cope
- Body image stressors (external/internal)
- Self esteem stressors (illness, surgery)
- Role stressors (developmental, situational, health or illness or role conflict)
- Identity stressors (teen age, retirement age)
What can nurses do to help patients with self-concept issues?
- Assess how a client has dealt with prior stressors
- Promote healthy self-concept
- -Help patient to develop insight and self awareness of problems and stressors
- -Help to solve problem and cope with stress
What are levels of intervention?
- Expanded level of awareness
- -establish trusting relationships
- Self exploration
- -accepting thoughts and feelings
- Self evaluation
- -help define problems clearly
- Planning realistic goals
- -look at all alternatives
- Commitment to action
- -reject ineffective coping strategies and accept effective ones
Nurse diagnoses examples
- Disturbed body image
- Caregive role strain
- ineffective role performance
- readiness for enhanced self concept
- chronic low self esteem
- situational low self esteem