1. What is the stage proposed by Erikson for children in the preschool years?
    initiative vs. guilt
  2. What is the self concept?
    the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
  3. What is self esteem?
    the judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
  4. Good emotional regulators experience empathy..
    by helping, sharing and comforting others
  5. Poor emotional regulators are overwhelmed by empathy and experience it by..
    displaying less sympathetic concern
  6. Peer relations. What is parallel play?
    a shift towards play with similar toys as other chlidren but not influence their reactions
  7. Peer relations. What is nonsocial activity?
    solitary play
  8. Peer relations. What is associative play?
    children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on behaviour
  9. Peer relations. What is cooperative play?
    a more advanced type of interaction where they work together towards a common goal, such as make believe house.
  10. What are the cultural variations in peer sociability in collectivist and indivdualist cultures?
    individualistic cultures often play in joint make believe. Collectivist culture children spend more play unoccupied or in parallel play.
  11. What is an alternative to harsh punishment?
    time out or withdrawal of priveledge
  12. Children are active thinkers about social rules. What are moral imperatives?
    the ability preschoolers have to distinguish what protects peoples rights from social conventions (customs by consensus e.g. table manners) and matters of personal choice (do not violate rights and are up to individual, e.g. choice of friends.)
  13. By the second year, two types of agression emerge. What is proactive agression?
    the most common kind where children act out to fulfil a desire or need
  14. By the second year, two types of agression emerge. What is reactive agression?
    angry defensive response to a blocked goal, meant to hurt someone
  15. Proactive and reactive agression are manifested in three forms. What are they?
    physical, verbal and relational
  16. What is gender identity?
    the image of oneself as masculine or feminine
  17. What is androgyny?
    a gender identity scoring high on both masculine and feminine traits
  18. What is gender constancy?
    understanding that gender is permanent
  19. What is gender schema theory?
    the idea that environmental pressures and childrens cognitions work together to shape gender role development. Combo of social learning and cognitive developmental features.
  20. What are the child rearing styles?
    Authoritative (best), authotarian, permissive, uninvolved
  21. What are features of authotaritive?
    warm and accepting, permit decision making, use adaptive control techniques
  22. what are features of authoritarian?
    low acceptance, minimal involvement in childs life, controlling and low autonomy granting. engage in psychological control; behaviours that manipulate childrens expression and attachment to parents
  23. what are features of permissive?
    warm and accepting but uninvolved
  24. what is uninvolved child rearing?
    low acceptance, little control, indifferent to autonomy giving
  25. what are cross cultural variences in parenting style?
    chinese withold praise, stress self control and high achievement, hispanic firm on respect for parents but pair it with warmth, african american combine physical punishment (use is sparingly) with warmth and reasoning
  26. Why does the authoritative style work so well?
    promotes maturity and adjustment of children in diverse temperaments. The relationship between parent and child becomes bidirectional.
Card Set
Chapter 8:Emotional and social development in early childhood