compounding theory

  1. powders
    • chemical that is solid in its physical state or dosage that is solid in its physical state
    • powder can contain the A.I. only or have additional non-medicinal ingredients or fillers (i.e., lactose)
  2. powder: advantages
    • contain different doses of A.I. specific to patient
    • can be administered easily to pediatrics who cannot swallow tabs/caps
    • rapid onset of action
    • more stable than in solution
    • can be used to prepare other dosage forms
  3. powder: disadvantages
    • not suitable for bitter, nauseating, or corrosive drugs
    • prep is time consuming, therefore more costly
  4. powder properties
    • partical size: influences dissolution and solubility
    • partical shape: crystalline
    • partical form: many types of crystal forms (polymorphic and metastable)
    • flow: powder must flow easily and uniformily to aid in good production results
  5. comminution
    reduction of partical size
  6. smaller partical sizes are useful to:
    • increase dissolution rates of drugs
    • aid in formulation process
    • enhance absorption
    • create uniformity of liquid mixtures
    • create non-grittiness in ointments, creams
  7. classes of large scale mills
    • 1. course crushers: jaw, roll, impact crushers
    • 2. intermediate grinders: hammer, roller, rotary crushers
    • 3. fine grinders: ball, hammer, colloid, fluid energy mills
  8. small scale reduction
    • trituration: grinding using mortar and pestel
    • pulverization by intervention: dissolve compound, mixed in M&P or ointment slab to enhance evap.
    • levigation: trit w/ M&P or spadulating in on slab w/ lev. agent
  9. blending
    • large scale: industrial blending equipment (Twin shell blenders, vertical impeller mixer)
    • small scale: spatulation (in bag, or M&P), trituration (M&P using geometric dilution)
  10. types of compounded powders: Bulk powders
    • oral bulk: dietary supplements, laxatives, antacids,
    • effervescent granulations:
    • dusting powders: dusted on skin
    • douche powders: vaginal cleansing
    • insufflators: into body cavities using applicator
  11. evidence of instability
    • caking
    • change in colour
    • moisture (in effervescent formulas)
    • swelling of mixture (excess of gas)
Card Set
compounding theory
study notes