Respiratory Rate (Respiration)
1. A basic examination procedure & part of the vital signs (key indicators of body system functioning)
2. RR is the number of complete respirations per minute.
3. One respiration = 1 inhalation + 1 exhalation
4. Normal respiratory rate for adults is 12 - 20 rpm.
Note: From chapter 15, pps 442-443
1. Visual examination of bronchi using bronchoscope
2. Can be used for diagnostic & operative procedures, such as tissue repair, or the removal of a foreign object.
1. Flexible, fiber optic device that is passed through the nose & down the airways.
2. Used to perform a bronchoscopy as diagnostic or treatment tool.
Chest imaging (x-ray?)
Valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, & emphysema.
1. Visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through the mouth & placed into the pharynx to examine the larynx.
2. Mirror laryngoscopy is a simpler version of this test in which the larynx is viewed by shining a light on an angled mirror held at the back of the soft palate.
Simpler version of the laryngoscopy in which larynx is viewed by shining a light on an angled mirror held at the back of the soft palate.
Peak flow meter
Handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel air.
Polysomography (Sleep apnea or Sleep study)
1. Measures physiological activity during sleep.
2. Most often performed to detect noturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea.
Pulmonary function tests
1. A group of tests that measure volume & flow of air by utilizing a spirometer.
2. These tests are measured against norm for individual's age, height, & sex.
Recording device that measures the amount (volume) of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time required for each breath.
1. External monitor placed on patient's finger or earlobe to measure oxygen saturation level in blood.
2. Normal reading = 95% - 100% of the blood is saturated by oxygen.
Phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes.
Phlegm (check spelling!)
Thick mucus secreted by tissues lining the respiratory system.
Tuberculin skin testing (tuberculin tine test)
1. Screening test for tuberculosis in which the skin of the arm is injected with a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria.
2. Test is performed using an instrument with several small prongs called tines.
3. A positive result indicates the possibility of exposure to the disease & warrants further testing.
Mantoux PPD skin test
1. Considered a more accurate skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis.
2. Very small amout of PPD tuberculin (a purified protein derivative) is injected just under the top layer of the skin on the forearm. The site is checked for a reaction 48-72 hours later.
Passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway.
Insertion of a tube, usually for passage of air or fluids.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose & sinus.
Surgical removal of the larynx
Surgical repair of the larynx
Surgical repair of the pharynx.
Surgical incision of the pharynx
Surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum.
Surgical repair of the trachea
1. Creation of a stoma into the trachea & insertion of a tube to facilitate the passage of air or removal of secretions.
2. Placement of this tube can be temporary or permanent.
NOTE: -ostomy = CREATE AN OPENING
- ..............-otomy = INCISION
1. Usually an emergency procedure
2. Incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage.
..............-ostomy = CREATE AN OPENING
1. Surgical removal of a lobe of a lung
2. This term is also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or thyroid gland.
Surgical removal of part of the pleura.
Surgical removal of all or part of a lung.
Surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the peural cavity.
1. Surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity
2. Procedure performed to establish draininage of empyema (pus in the pleural space.)
1. Surgical treatment of lung cancer by removing all or a part of a lung
2.Surgery involves cutting between the ribs on one side of the thorax, then removing the affected portion of the lung.
3. Thoracotomy is also used for the visual examiniation of internal organs and the procurement of tissue specimens from the thorax
Video-assisted thoracic surgery
1. Use of video-assisted thoracoscope to view the inside of the chest cavity through a very small incision.
2. Procedure used to obtain biopsy specimens to diagnose certain types of pneumonia, infections, or tumors of the chest wall.
3. It is also used to treat repeatedly collapsing lungs.
Specialized endoscope used for treating the thorax.
Diaphragmatic breathing (abdominal breathing)
Relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety.
Continuous postive airway pressure (CPAP device)
Also known as positive pressure ventilation device.
1. Treatment for sleep apnea.
- 2. Includes
- .....a. Mask
- .....b. Tubes
- .....c. Fan to create air pressure
3. Air pressure pushes tongue forward to maintain an open aiway.
4. This does not cure sleep apnea
but does reduce snoring
and prevents dangerous apneic disturbances
- 1. Apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure. Example: spinal cord injury
- 2. Also refers to any device that controls the quality of air a person inhales. Examples: Disposable dust mask or piece of scuba diving equipment.
1. Mechanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs
2. Used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function.
3. The ventilator forces air into the lungs.
4. Exhalation takes place passively as the lungs contract.
1. Administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood.
- 2. Oxygen is administered by following methods:
- .....a. Nasal canula - small tube divides into 2 prongs
- .....b. Rebreather mask - allows exhaled breath to be partially reused, delivering up to 60% oxygen
- .....c. Non-rebreather mask - allows higher levels of oxygen to be added to air taken in by patient
Antitussive (cough medicine)
Administered to prevent or relieve coughing
1. Medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs.
2. At first sign of an asthma attack, the patient uses a meter-dose inhaler to self-administer the bronchdilator.
Mixes a single dose of the medication with a puff of air & pushes it into the mouth via a propellant.
1. Pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor.
2. Vapor is then inhaled by patient via a face mask or mouth piece.
- 1. Most asthmatics take 2 kinds of medicines:
- .....a. Controller medicines
- .....b. Rescue medicines
1. Taken daily by asthmatics to prevent attacks.
2. These medications help to control inflammation & stop the airways from reacting to factors that might trigger asthma attack.
Rescue or Quick-relief medicines
1. Taken by asthmaatics at first sign of an attack
2. Dilate airways & make breathing easier.
3. These medications are known as bronchodilators.