Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
1. Lung disease in which it is hard to breathe.
2. Damage to bronchi partially obstruct them, making it difficult to get air in & out
3. Usually smokers or former smokers who also have chronic bronchitis & emphysema.
1. Airways have become inflamed & thickened
2. Increase in number & size of mucus-producing cells
3. Results in excess mucus production, which causes coughing & difficulty getting air in & out
1. Progressive loss of lung function
- 2. Characterized by:
- .....a. Decrease in total # of alveoli
- .....b. Enlargement of remaining alveoli
- .....c. Progressive destruction of walls of remaining alveoli
3. As aveoli are destroyed
, breathing becomes inreasingly rapid, shallow & difficult.
4. To compensate for loss of capacity, the lungs expand, sometimes causing an enlarged barrel shaped chest.
1. Chronic allergic disorder
2. Characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing & wheezing.
3. Episodes known as asthmatic attacks.
- 4. Frequency & severity of asthma attacks is influenced by a variety of factors including:
- .....a. Allergens
- .....b. Environmental agents
- .....c. Exercise
- .....d. Infection
- 5. Factors causing breathing difficulty during attack:
- .....a. Airway inflammation
- ..........(1.) Swelling of airways
- ..........(2.) Clogging airways with mucus
- ..........(3.) Usually occurs after exposure to inhaled allergens
- .....b. Bronchospasm
- ..........(1.) Contraction of the smooth muscle in walls of bronchi & bronchioles
- ..........(2.) They tighten & squeeze airway shut
- ..........(3.) Exercise-induced bronchispasm
- .................Narrowing develops after 5-15 minutes of physical exertion.
- ...........(4.) Can also be due to cold weather or allergies
1. Can be caused by
any of 200 different viruses
- 2. Also known as:
- .....a. Upper respiratory infection
- .....b. Acute nasopharyngitis
Allergic rhinitis (allergy)
1. Allergic reaction to airborn allergens
2. Causes an increased flow of mucus
1. Acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants
- 2. Characterized by:
- .....a. Obstruction of larynx
- .....b. Hoarseness
- ,....c. Barking cough
1. Now largely prevented thru immunization
2. Acute bacterial infection of throat & upper respiratory tract
3. Diphtheria bacteria produces toxins that can damage heart muscle & perhipheral nerves.
- Bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by:
- .....a. An injury
- .....b. Excessive use of blood-thinners
- .....c. Bleeding disorders
1. Acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection
2. Spread by respiratory droplets
3. Occurs most commonly in epidemics during colder months
4. There are many strains of influenza virus. Some strains can be prevents by annual immunization.
Pertussis (whooping cough)
1. Contagious bacterial infection of upper respiratory tract
- 2. Characterized by:
- .....a. Recurrent bouts of paroxysmal coughing
- .....b. Followed by breathlessness
- .....c. & noisy inspiration.
Means sudden or spasm-like
Rhinorrhea (runny nose)
Means watery flow of mucus from the nose
Means inflammation of the sinuses
Phryngitis (sore throat)
Means inflammation of the pharynx
Means paralysis of the larynx
Means sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx
Means loss of ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
- Any change in vocal quality including:
- .....a. Hoarseness
- .....b. Weakness
- .....c. Cracking of a boy's voice during puberty
1. Means inflammation of the larynx
2. Also commonly used to describe voice loss caused by this inflammation
Bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea
Excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
1. Inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
- 2. Can be caused by:
- .....a. Influenza
- .....b. Damage to the lung beneath the pleura
Pain in the pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements
1. Accumulation of air in the pleural space
- 2. Causes pressure imbalance that:
- .....a. Prevents lung from fully expanding or
- .....b. Can cause it to collapse
1. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural space
2. Produces feeling of breaeathlessness because it prevents lung from fully expanding
Escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or into a body cavity
1. Collection of blood in the pleural cavity
2. Often results from chest trauma such as stab wound
3. Can be caused by disease or surgery
1. Coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum derived from lungs or bronchial tubes
2. Result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
Pyothorax (empyema of the pleural cavity)
Presence of pus in the pleural cavity between layers of the pleural membrane
Means a collection of pus within a body cavity
1. Easy or normal breathing
2. This is the baseline for judging breathing disorders
3. Opposite of apnea
1. Absence of spontaneous respiration
2. Opposite of eupnea
Sleep apnea syndromes
1. A group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops for long-enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
2. Snoring can be a symptom
Noisy breathing caused by vibration of the soft palate during sleep
1. Abnormally slow rate of respiration
2. Usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
1. Abnormally rapid rate of respiration
2. Usually more than 20 breaths per minute
Pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
1. Difficult or labored breathing
2. Shortness of breath is frequently one of the first symptoms of heart failure.
- 3. Can also be caused by:
- .....a. Strenuous physical exertion
- .....b. Lung damage that produces dyspnea even at rest
1. Commonly associateed with exertion.
2. Is breathing that is deeper & more rapid than is normal at rest
3. Opposite of hypopnea.
Shallow or slow respiration
1. Abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety
2. Causes changes in the blood gas levels due to a decrease in carbon dioxide at the celluar level.
Airway obstruction (choking)
1. Occurs when food or a foreign object blocks the airway preventing air from entering or leaving the lungs.
2. This is a life-threatening emergency requiring immediate action by performing the abdominal thrust maneuver or Heimlich maneuver
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver
1. Absence of oxygen from body's gases, blood, or tissues.
2. If anoxia occurs for more than 4-6 minutes, irreversible brain damage can occur.
1. Conditon that occurs when body cannot get the air it needs to function
2. In this life-threatening situation, oxygen levels in the blood drop quickly & carbon dioxide levels rise
3. Unless the patient's breathing is restored within a few minutes, death or serious brain damage follows.
1. Any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia.
- 2. Can be caused by:
- .....a. An airway obstruction
- .....b. Drowning
- .....c. Choking
- .....d. Smothering
- .....e. Inhaling gases such as carbon monoxide instead of air
Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of adequate oxygen
Abnormal buildup of cardon dioxide in the blood
1. Condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood
2. This condition is less severe than anoxia.
3. Compare to hypoxia - below-normal O2 levels in body tissues & cells
1. Condition of having below-normal levels of oxygen in body tissues & cells
2. Less severe than anoxia.
3. Compare to hypoxemia - below-normal O2 levels in the blood
Altitude Hypoxia (altitude sickness)
Condition brought on by the decreased oxygen in the air at higher altitudes, usually above 8,000 feet.
Respiratory failure (respiratory acidosis)
Condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low OR the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high.
Damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli & prevent normal exchange of gases
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS or crib death)
1. Sudden & unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of 2 weeks & 1 year
2. This happens more often among babies who sleep on their stomach
NOTE: For this reason, it is recommended that infants be put down to skeep on their back or side.