1. The endocrine system communicates through what?
  2. Name the endocrine glands.
    hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, testes, and pineal gland.
  3. What does the pineal gland do?
    secretes melatonin and is involved in stimulating gonadal function
  4. What hormone do the kidneys excrete?
  5. What hormone does the thyroid make?
  6. What body tissues does thyroxine affect?
  7. What hormone does the heart excrete?
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  8. What hormones does the GI tract excrete?
    numerous peptide hormones
  9. What are the ORGANS of the endocrine system?
  10. Are all glands endocrine glands?
  11. What makes a gland an endocrine gland?
    gland secretes the hormone into the BLOOD
  12. What do GLANDS do?
    produce hormones and secrete them into the blood in order for the hormone to reach the target tissues
  13. What do most hormones have in common?
    secrete small amounts at variable but predictable rates, circulate through blood, and bind to specific cell receptors either in the cell membrane or within the cell
  14. How are hormones classified?
    by their chemical structure (lipid or water soluble)
  15. What hormones are lipid soluble?
    steroid hormones (all hormones produced by adrenal cortex and sex glands) and thyroid hormones

    *All others are water soluble
  16. What are some important roles hormones have?
    reproduction, response to stress/ injury, electrolyte balance, energy metabolism, growth, maturation, age. Nervous system.
  17. What are catecholamines?
    They are hormones when they are excreted from the adrenal medulla but act as neurotransmitters when secreted by nerve cells in the brain and PNS.
  18. Hormones can also affect behavior. What hormones in excess can cause mood swings?
    Growth hormone, cortisol, and parathyroid
  19. What has depression been associated with?
    adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism
  20. What are the Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)hormones?
    • -Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
    • -Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
    • -Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • -Gonadotropic hormones (Follicle-stimulating (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone LH)
    • -Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • -Prolactin

    Fx and target tissue on next cards
  21. Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
    Target Tissue: All body cells

    Fx: Promotes protein anabolism (growth, tissue repair) and lipid mobilizationa and catabolism
  22. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
    • TT: Thyroid gland
    • Fx: Stimulates sythesis and release of thyroid hormones, growth, and function of thyroid gland
  23. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • TT: Adrenal cortex
    • Fx: Fosters growth of adrenal cortex, stimulates secretion of corticosteroids
  24. Gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH)
    • TT: Reproductive organs
    • Fx: Stimulate sex hormone secretion, reproductive organ growth, reproduction process
  25. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • TT: Melanocytes in skin
    • Fx: Increases melanin production in melanocytes to make skin darker in color
  26. Prolactin
    • TT: Ovary and mammary glands in females
    • Fx: Stimulates milk production in lactating women, increases response of follicles to LH and FSH, has unclear fx in men
  27. List the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) Hormones
    Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin

    Target tissues and Fx on next cards
  28. Oxytocin
    • TT: uterus, mammary glands
    • Fx: Stimulates milk secretion, uterine contractility
  29. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
    • TT: Renal tubules, vascular smooth muscle
    • Fx: promotes reabsorption of water, vasoconstriction
  30. List the Thyroid hormones
    Thyroxin (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Calcitonin

    TT and Fx on next cards
  31. Thyrocine (T4)
    • TT: All body tissues
    • Fx: Precursor to T3
  32. Triiodothyronine (T3)
    • TT: All body tissues
    • Fx: Regulates metabolic rate of all cells and precesses of cell growth and tissue differentiation
  33. Calcitonin
    • TT: Bone tissue
    • Fx: Regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels, decreases serum Ca2+ levels
  34. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone is the only one in its category. What are its TTs and Fx?
    • TT: Bone, intestine, kidneys
    • Fx: Regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels, promotes bone demineralization and increases intestinal absorption of Ca2+; increases serum Ca2+ levels
  35. List the Adrenal Medulla hormones
    Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

    TT and fx on next cards
  36. Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) both
    • TT: Sympathetic effectors
    • Fx: Response to stress, enhances and prolongs effects of sympathetic nervous system
  37. List the Adrenal Cortex hormones
    Corticosteroids (cortisol, hydrocortisone), Androgens (testosterone, androsterone) and estrogen, Mineralcoricoids (aldosterone)

    TTs and Fx on next cards
  38. Corticosteroids
    • TT: All body tissues
    • Fx: Promotes metabolism, response to stress, antiinflammatory
  39. Androgens and estrogen
    • TT: Reproductive organs
    • Fx: Promostes masculizization in men, growth and sexual activity in women
  40. Mineralocorticoids
    • TT: Kidney
    • Fx: Regulates sodium and potassium balance and thus water balance
  41. List the Pancreas hormones (Islets of langerhans)
    Insulin (from beta cells), Amylin (from beta cells), Glucagon (from alpha cells), Somatostatin, Pancreatic polypeptide

    TT and fx on next cards
  42. Insulin
    • TT: General
    • Fx: Promotes metabolism, response to stress, antiinflammatory
  43. Amylin
    • TT: liver, stomach
    • Fx: Decrease gastric motility, decrease glucagon secretion, decrease endogenous glucose release from liver, increase satiety
  44. Glucagon
    • TT: General
    • Fx: Stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
  45. Somatostatin
    • TT: Pancreas
    • Fx: Inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion
  46. Pancreatic polypeptide
    • TT: General
    • Fx: Influences regulation of pancreatic exocrine fx and metabolism of ansorbed nutrients
  47. List the Gonad hormones
    Women (Ovaries)- Estrogen, Progesteron

    Men (Testes)-Testosterone

    TT and fx on next cards
  48. Estrogen
    • TT: reproductive system, breasts
    • Fx: Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics, prep of uterus for fertilization and fetal development, stimulates bone growth
  49. Progesterone
    • TT: Reproductive system
    • Fx: Maintains lining of uterus necessary for successful pregnancy
  50. Testosterone
    • TT: Reproductive system
    • Fx: Stimulates development of sexondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis
  51. Which hormones are not water soluble?
    Steroid and thyroid hormones
  52. How are they transported then?
    Stick to plasma protein and travel through blood that way
  53. Are hormones active or inactive when bound to protein?
  54. What is the point of a hormone binding to protein then?
    They can use protein as transport and then be released when appropriate and immediately exert their action and the target tissue
  55. _____-Soluble hormones circulate freely in the blood and are not dependent on proteins for transport.
  56. How does a hormone know that it can hop onto a certain type of tissue?
    The receptors have a "lock-and-key" mechanism and a hormone will only act on cells that have a receptor specific for that hormone
  57. There are two type of receptors. What are they?
    Within the cell and cell membrane
  58. What hormones attach to within cell receptors?
    steroid and thyroid
  59. What hormone receptors are cell membranes receptors?
    Protein type hormone receptors
  60. Whar affects the mechanism of action for the hormone?
    Location of receptor sites
  61. Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors are located inside the cell. Since these hormones are lipid soluble, how do they pass through the target cell membrane?
    by passive diffusion
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