1. The Psychological Therapies
    psychotherapy-treatment involving psychological techniques

    • Major theories:
    • 1. Psychoanalytic
    • 2. Humanistic
    • 3. Behavioral
    • 4. Cognitive

    eclectic approach-blend of therapies
  2. Psychoanalysis
    • Sigmund Freud
    • psychodynamic therapies

    AIMS to "know thyself". Excavating through childhood memories, buried feelings --better life when releasing id-ego-superego conflicts

    • METHODS: Free Association-say allowed whatever comes to mind.
    • Blocks in flow of free association--resistance
    • Therapist notes resistance--then interprets their meaning
    • latent content --dream analysis
    • transferring-feelings for other relationship transferred to therapist (love or hate feelings toward a parent)

    • PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY- individuals responding to unconscious forces from childhood experiences, enhancing self-insight
    • understanding by focusing on themes across important relationships
    • interpersonal psychotherapy-reaching root of difficulties, system relieft, not overall personality change
  3. Humanistic Therapies
    • Carl Rogers
    • Humanistic therapies focus on
    • -present and future > past
    • -conscious > unconscious
    • -taking responsibility
    • -promoting growth > curing illness

    • insight therapy-psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies
    • client-centered therapy(non-directive)-conscious self-perceptions
    • active listening-echoes, restates, clarifiing statements of what person expresses
    • unconditional positive regard-caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude condusive to developing self awareness and acceptance

    • Active listening:
    • paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings
  4. Behavior Therapies
    behavior theory-elimination of unwanted behaviors

    • Classical Conditioning Techniques:
    • counterconditioning- pairs trigger stimulus with new response thats incompatible with fear
    • --ex. fear of enclosed space + relaxation
    • exposure therapy-exposing people to what they usually avoid; habituation
    • --systematic desensitization- pleasant relaxed state gradually with anxiety-triggering stimuli; treats phobias
    • --virtual reality therapy
    • aversive conditioning-negative response for positive response to harmful stimulus
    • --reverse systematic desensitization
    • --ex. to nail biting->treat with painting nails with nasty nail polish
    • Operant Conditioning:
    • voluntary behaviors strongly influenced by consequences
    • behavior modification-reinforced desired behaviors and witholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors or punishing them
    • token economy-people earn a desired behavior and can later exchange tokens for various privliges or treats

    • Concerns about behavior modification:
    • 1. Practical: How durable are behaviors?
    • 2. Ethical: Is it right for one human to control another's behavior?
  5. Cognitive Therapies
    teaching of more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; assumption that thoughts intervene between events and emotional reactions

    • Beck's Therapy for Depression:
    • reverse clients catastrophisizing belief about themselves, their situations, and futures.
    • stress innoculation training- teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations

    • Cognitive-Behavior Theory
    • alter the way people think(cognitive therapy) and the way they act(behavioral therapy)
    • --ex. fear of social situations -> learn new ways of thinking + practice approaching people
Card Set
Chapters 53, 54