Chapter 1

  1. The human species was characterized in the Paleolithic Age by:
    • the ability to communicate with speech
    • the development of simple stone and wooden tools
    • rituals to lessen the fear of death
    • slow population growth
  2. The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone, Age spanned from
    12,000~8000 BCE
  3. The emergence of agriculture, or the Neolithic Revolution, caused:
    • an increase in the specialization of political, economic, and religious functions
    • the ability of humans to settle more permanently in one spot
    • a population explosion
    • the gradual removal of hunters from the agricultural community
  4. The Neolithic Revolution first occurred in
    Middle East
  5. Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools because
    • they made woodworking easier
    • they made superior weapons
    • metal hoes and other tools allowed to work the ground more efficiently
    • they were sharper and more precise

    they were NOT easier for ordinary people to produce in mass at home.
  6. Characteristics that define a civilization:
    • development of cities
    • adaptation of new technology (metal tools)
    • writing systems
    • political units capable of ruling large regions

    NOT: more equality between social classes
  7. The Tigris-Euphrates civilization, Sumeria, produced the first...
    writing system
  8. Egyptian civilization differred from Mesopotamia civilization by stressing...
    more centralized and durable empires.
  9. Which river-valley civilization was characterized by isolation?
    Hwanghe
  10. As the most influencial of the smaller Middle Eastern regional cultures, the Jews were characterized most by
    monotheism
  11. In the Paleolithic Age, hunter-gathers could not support:
    large populations and elaborate societies
  12. One sign of the revolutionary quality of agriculture as a system of production was the
    very slowness of its spread
  13. Most early civilizations were characterized by:
    • the existence of agriculture
    • significant cities
    • writing systems
    • more formal states
  14. The ______, ______, and _______ were examples of smaller Middle Eastern cultures that were capable of surviving and fluorishing when the great empires were weak.
    Phoenicians, Lydians, and Jews
  15. Most of the 2 million-plus years during which our species has existed are described by the term ______.
    Paleolithic/Old Stone Age
  16. The ending of the _____ was a major factor in the formation of the first farming communities, or the emergence of the Neolithic Revolution.
    Ice Age
  17. The Neolithic village, _______, has been elaborately studies by archeologists.
    Catal Huyuk
  18. Most civilizations developed writing, starting with the emergence of _____in the Middle East around 3500 BCE
    cuneiform
  19. It was under the Babylonian ule that King _______ introduced the most famous early code of law
    Hammurabi
  20. Egyptian civilization sprang up in northern Africa, along the _____ River
    Nile
  21. By about 1500 BCE, a line of kings called the ______ ruled over the Hwanghe river-valley civilization.
    Shang
  22. A smaller regional culture called the _______ devised a greatly simplified alphabet with 22 letters around 1300 BCE; this in turn was the ancestor of the Greek and Latin alphabets
    Phoenicians
  23. the largest city to develop along the Indus River was _______.
    Harrappa / Mohenjo Darjo
  24. Beginning in 2700 BCE, the Egyptian pharophs used slave to build the ______.
    pyramids.
  25. All of the following were changes to human societies brought about by the Neolithic Revolution EXCEPT:





    D. Women and men grew to have more equal status
  26. Women were important contributors to the agricultural revolution because they were likely the gender who...





    E. gathered edible plants and knew where grains grew.
  27. Which of the following is the best explanation for why the concept of civilization is controversial as an organizing principle of world history?





    D. The use of the concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads
  28. All of the following ancient civilizations were centered around a river valley EXCEPT:





    E. Chavin
  29. Which of the following most accurately compares the government structures of early Mesopotamia and Egypt?

    A. The governments of both civilizations were highly decentralized.
    B. Overall, Mesopotamian government was characterized by strong city-states, and Egypt was ruled by divine kingship.
    C. Mesopotamia had a highly developed bureaucracy; Egypt did not.
    D. In both civilizations power was concentrated in the hands of a king that was believed to be a god.
    E. Although priests were powerful in both societies, their authority was generally separated from the political power of the kings.
    B. Overall, Mesopotamian government was characterized by strong city-states, and Egypt was ruled by divine kingship.
  30. Which of the following best describes the basis of the ruler's authority in Zhou China?





    C. The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people.
  31. Which of folowing were common phenomena in early Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and the Indus River Valley?

    I. a complex writing system
    II. extensive irrigation
    III. long distance trade
    IV. centralization of civilization around navigable rivers





    E. I, II, III and IV
  32. The "forbidden city" reflects the political leader's status as...





    E. the son of Heaven
  33. All of the following commonly characterize the development of civilization EXCEPT:





    C. increasing equality among all citizens
  34. Confucianism encourages its followers to





    B. follow ethical rules that promote harmony and order
  35. All of the following events happened at about the same time (1200 BCE) EXCEPT:





    D. The Zhou dynasty fell, and the Warring States period began.
  36. Which of the following factors best explains why the four events referred to in #12 happened about the same time?





    D. interdependence
  37. The continuing importance of written language in Chinese culture may be traced to its early use for





    B. divination; communication with the ancestors
  38. The spread of Greek culture all over the eastern Mediterranean and the former Persian Empire is known as..





    E. hellenization
  39. Which of the following civilizations had to acclimate to existing in a mountainous area with a narrow, dry coastline on one side of the mountain range and a rain forest on the other side?





    A. Chavin
  40. Shifting cultivation was generally practiced

    A. around fertile river valleys
    B. in rain forests and their peripheries
    C. in mountainous areas
    D. along dry coastal areas
    E. in grassy plains
    B in rain forests and their peripheries
  41. The polis is most closely associated with which of the following societies/civilizations?

    A. The Mauryan Empire
    B. Athens
    C. Han China
    D. Babylonian
    E. Persian Empire
    B Athens
  42. All of the following ar accurate comparisons of Athens and Sparta EXCEPT:





    C. Spartan women did not have as many freedoms as did Athenian women.
  43. All of the following are important principles of Greek culture that had wide influence on later civilizations EXCEPT:





    B. new religious concepts that redefined the nature of god(s)
  44. All of the following are accurate descriptions of trade along the Silk Road before 600 CE EXCEPT:





    E. Silk Road trade did not significantly affect the lifestyles of Turkic nomads, the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia.
  45. Which of the following technologies most directly contributed to increased overland travel starting around 300 BCE?





    C. camel saddles
  46. Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India?





    C. Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/philosophical traditions to provide continuity.
  47. Which sailing technology allowe the sailors on th Indian Ocean to travel long distances by taking advantage of monsoon winds?





    D. the lateen sail
  48. Which of the following was one of the most valuable commodities added to established trading systems by the trans-Saharan trade?





    E. salt
  49. Why did the majority of the Chinese population during the Han dynasty live in eastern China?





    B. The best farmland was concentrated along rivers in eastern China.
  50. The people who transported goods across the Sahara and dominated trade across the desert for centuries were the...





    A. Berbers
  51. Which of the following characteristics contribtued most directly to a tendency toward political disunity in ancient India?
    • A. weak religious traditions
    • B. lack of foreign trade
    • C. weak social structure
    • D. lack of strong political leaders
    • E. diverse geographical features
  52. Buddhists believe that a state of grace or nirvana may be reached by...





    A. following the eightfold path
  53. What central feature of Hinduism did Buddhism reject?





    B. the caste system
  54. "He traveled throughout Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece, and found that many non-Jews were interested in the teachings of Christianity. He redirected his effrts toward these gentiles, and set up strong Christian communities all over the eatern Mediterranean"

    The quote above describes...




    C. Paul
  55. Which of the following in a significant difference between early Christianity and early Judaism?





    C. Christianity put more emphasis on missionary work, converting others to the religion.
  56. Which of the following belief systems have their origins in China during the classical era (100 BCE~500 CE) ?

    I. Buddhism
    II. Daoism
    III. Legalism
    IV. Confucianism





    D. II, III and IV only
Author
TOYOMAMA0118
ID
141501
Card Set
Chapter 1
Description
Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations
Updated