Geography test 1

  1. Absolute Space
    a mathematical space described through points, lines, areas, planes and configurations, whose relationships can be fixed precisely through mathematical reasoning.
  2. Relative Space ( socioeconomic, experiential/ cultural space.
    • socioeconomic space of sites, situations, routes, regions, and distributions.
    • ( experiential, cultural space) - Places, ways, territories, domains, and words.
  3. Sense of place
    Feeling evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it.
  4. Landscapes) Ordinary, Symbolic
    • Landscape- a collection of evidence about our character and experience, our struggles and triumphs as humans.
    • Ordinary- Vernacular landscapes- everyday landscaapes thaat that people create in the course of their lives togeather.( crowded citycenters, leafy suburbs)

    Symbolic Landscapes- by contrast represent values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public.
  5. Region
    Larger sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributesin comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
  6. Scale
  7. Absolute Distance
    Units you can count. ( kilometers, Miles)
  8. Relative Distance
    relative measure Expressed in time, effort, or cost.
  9. Absolute Location
    Location thats fixed mathematically through coordinates of latitude and longitude.
  10. Relative Location Site: Situation:
    • Site:Physical attributes to a location, terrain, soil, vegetation and water resources.
    • Situation: refers to location of a pllace, relative to other places and human activities. Use accesibility to route ways.
  11. Map Projection
    Systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on earths surface
  12. Core Regions
    Regions that dominate trade, control the mast advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies.
  13. Periphery
    Regions with underdeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity.
  14. Semiperipheral regions
    regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves, exploited and dominated by core regions.
  15. Colonialism
    The establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society.
  16. Imperialism
    Extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories.
  17. Act of Berlin
  18. Topographical map
    Shows contours of earths surface mountains and valley) Represent spacial dimensions of conditions processes or events.
  19. Map Projection
    systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on earths surface.
  20. geographic Information System (GIS)
    Organized collection of computer hardware, software, and geographic data that is desighned to capture, store, update, manipulate, and display geographically refernced information.
  21. GDP
    Grose domestic product on countries borders. Sum of what nation produces per particular year.
  22. GNP
    GDP + income from other countries
  23. PPP
    Purchasing power parity, cost of goods in a country, cost of middle class existence.
  24. Initial Advantage
    Critical inmportance of an early staff in economic developement, a special case of external economies.
  25. Localization Economies
    Cost savings that accrue to a particular industries as a result of clustering togeather ar a specific location.
  26. Agglomeration effects
  27. Backward Linkages
  28. Forward Linkages
  29. Ancillary Activities
  30. Cumulative Causation
    Spiral buildup if advantages that occurs in a specific geographic settings as aresult or the developement of external economie,agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
  31. Locational Effects
  32. Spread effects
    Positive impacts on a region or regions of the economic growth of some other region.
  33. Impart Substitutions
    Process by which domestic producers provide goods or services taht formerly were bought from foreighn producers.
  34. Growth Poles
    Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high growth industries
  35. Agglomeration diseconomies
    The negative economic effect of urbanization and the local concentrations of industry.
  36. Creative destruction
    The withdrawal of investments from activities and regions that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities ( and new places)
  37. New Internaational Division of labor
  38. Flexible production systems
    Ability of manufacturers to shift quickly and efficiently from one level of output to another or from one product configuration to another.
  39. Just in time production
    Manufacturing process in which daily or hourly delivery schedules of materials allow for minimal or zero inventories.
  40. Vertical Disentigration
    Evolution from large functionally integrated firms within a given industry toward networks of specialized firms, subcontractors, and suppliers.
  41. Neo- Liberalism
    Reduction in the role and budget of government including reduced subsidiesand the privatization of formerly publicly ovned and operated concerns, such as utilities.
  42. Structural Adjustment
  43. State
    Independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states.
  44. Sovereighnty
    Exercise of state power overr people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law.
  45. Nation
    A group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language or a history or political indentity.
  46. Nationalism
    Feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation was a natural right to determine its own affairs
  47. Re- districting
    defining and redefining of territorial district boundries.
Card Set
Geography test 1
Geography test 1