More Protozoa

  1. what are the 4 types of protozoa?
    flagellates, amoebae, ciliates, coccidians
  2. types of flagellates?
    giardia, tritrichomonas, trichomonas
  3. what are the 2 life forms of giardia?
    trophozoites and cysts
  4. describe the trophozite form of giardia?
    motile form, vegetative form, looks like a teardrop, 2 nuculi which look like eyes, have 8 flagella (4pairs)
  5. what do giardia cysts look like?
    13microns across, have 2 nuculi
  6. who are the definitive hosts of giardia?
    humans, dogs, cats, livestock
  7. whats giardias intermediate host?
  8. whats the infection site of giardia?
    small intestine
  9. how does giardia vegitative form deivide?
    asexually - longitudinal fission
  10. are trophozoites capable of causing infection?
    no, cysts only
  11. how do you get giardia?
    eating contaminated food or water. cyst form only
  12. what pathogenisis mean?
    mech of how a disease is caused
  13. whats the pathogenisis of giardia?
    • attach to border of the small intesting
    • absorb food
    • infections can be no CS to severe enteritis
    • suckers damage villi and cause diarrhea
  14. giardia kill?
    has a high morbidity but low mortality
  15. how long can cysts live w/o host?
    2 weeks to a month
  16. whats the prepatent period of giardia?
    1 to 2 weeks
  17. how do you diagnose giardia?
    fecal cytology, direct smears, floats
  18. how big is a giardia cyst?
  19. what seriology test can find giargia?
    ELISA(ab), IFA
  20. CS of giardia?
    cramping, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss, gas
  21. tx of giardia?
    • metronidazole, albendazole
    • dogs+ruminants= panacur
  22. whats the public health sign of giardia?
    most common intest parasite in NA, noramlly human to human spread, no relationship between human and pet ownership and infection
  23. prevention of giardia?
    vaccine - nonore, BE CLEAN
  24. what kills giardia?
    phenol and bleach
  25. tritrichomonas fetus is what type of protozoan?
  26. what tritrichomonas fetus seen in?
    cattle as a venerreal disease
  27. tritrichomonas fetus causes what?
    abortion and infertility
  28. CS of tritrichomonas fetus in bulls?
    very few - serology by a culture of preputal flesh
  29. diagnosis of tritrichomonas fetus in cows?
    see on cytology of prepuce of vagina - wobbles on slide
  30. whats a common avian protozoa?
    avian trichomonas
  31. avian trichomonas CS?
    infects upper GI tract, see cankers
  32. how do you diagnose avian trichomonas
    crop wash or stained smear of lesion (canker)
  33. examples of ciliates?
    balantidium coli
  34. balantidium coli normal resivor host is?
  35. balantidium coli infects who?
    dogs, humans, primates
  36. balantidium coli direct life cycle?
    fecal oral spread, cysts shed in feces (60microns), infect in large intestine
  37. cs of balantidium coli?
    ofter asymotomatic but can see diarrhea, abd pain, in debilitate humans CS severe
  38. types of amoebae?
    entamoeba histolytica
  39. entamoeba histolytica is a type of what?
  40. how is entamoeba histolytica spread?
    fecal oral
  41. what protozoa do humans typically spread to pets?
    entamoeba histolytica
  42. CS of entamoeba histolytica?
    diarrhea, ulcerative colotis
  43. entamoeba histolytica is would in what animals? where?
    humans, dogs, cats, other mammales, large intest
  44. are most amoeba pathogenic?
  45. types of coccidians?
    coccidia, cryptosporidium, toxoplasma, sarcocystis, neospora
  46. characteristics of coccidians?
    • most spread by ingestion
    • inf might be in oocyst form, cyst,or trophozite
    • dx on floats of directs (hard ti find) (some serio tests avai)
  47. term for passed in feces
  48. term for resting form, may be passed in feces
  49. term for motile form
  50. term for destructive form
  51. term for resting form in tissue
  52. toxoplasma gondii definitive host is?
    cats pnly
  53. toxoplasma gondii intermediate host?
    amphibians, fihs, reptiles, all mammals, humans and cats
  54. toxoplasma gondii infects what body part?
    jejunum and ileum
  55. toxoplasma gondii affects intermediate hosts how?
    brain, skeletal muscle, heart, lymphnodes
  56. describe toxoplasma gondii oocysts
    shed in feces, 12microns
  57. describe toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites
    destructive forms, only in tissue, 4-8microns
  58. describe the lifecycle of toxoplasma gondii
    • there are 2 life cycles.
    • 1 in def host - enteroepithelial cycle
    • 1 in inter med host - extraintestinal cycle
  59. describe the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii in the def host
    cats ingest tissue cysts containing bradyzoites - usuallt mice

    they then hatch and penetrate epitheliat cells of small intestine, reproduce, the spread UNSPORULATED oocysts
  60. when does toxoplasma gondii cysts spore? how long take?
    after being pooped. 1-3 days
  61. CS of toxoplasma gondii in cats
    • any organ sys can be affected, self limiting to fatal,
    • lungs, neurological, ocular
  62. 75% of cats with anterior uveitis have?
    toxoplasma gondii
  63. how to dx toxoplasma gondii
    • fecal-rarely shed
    • ELISA Ab test
  64. whats a positive ELISA test for toxoplasma gondii mean?
    doesnt mean oocysts are being shed, 40% of cats are seropositive
  65. tx of toxoplasma gondii
    clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfa
  66. how do inter med host get toxoplasma gondii
    ingest bradyzoites in meat or ingest oocysts
  67. describe the life cycleof toxoplasma gondii in a intermed host
    tachy form invade and reproduce in any tissue, tissue cysts containt bradyzoites in muscs, cns, organs.
  68. toxoplasma gondii inter host CS?
    none usually
  69. toxoplasma gondii and babies issue?
    transplacental xmission if the host does not have any AB protecting
  70. how can a woman know theyre protected from toxoplasma gondii
    test titers
  71. how to prevent toxoplasma gondii
    avoid cat litter, wear gloves if scooping poop, clean box 1-3 days before cysts can even from, cook meat, wash off fruit, cover outside sandboxes
  72. neospora canium is what type of protozoa?
  73. CS of neospora canium
    • puppies 5-6 weeks but 2-7 years old documentsed, neurological, stiffness, hyperextension of legs, muscle atrophy, seizures, head tilit
    • abortion in ruminants
  74. neospora canium preventable by?
  75. dx of neospora canium
    serology, histology. PCR
  76. tx of neospora canium
    sulfonamides, clindamycin
  77. what a PCR test?
    dna test
  78. prevention of neospora canium?
    dont feed raw meet diets, higest risk
  79. intestinal coccida ex?
    isopora, eimeria, cryptosporidium

    sarcocystis, toxoplasma
  80. describe the isopora and eimeria life cycles
    direct life cycle only, def host passes cysts, must sporulate in 1-2 days, host eats infectice oocyst, sporozites hatch and inter intestinal cells
  81. is eimeria found in cats and dogs?
  82. isospora facts
    common in puppies and kittens, reproduce in intestinal cells
  83. whats the prepatent peropd of isospora?
    1 week
  84. CS of isospora?
    diarrhea +- blood and moucus
  85. tx of neospora canium
    sulfonamides- albon, strong ammonium hydroxide to kill in environment
  86. treat isospora in adults?
    no cuz immune sys can handle
  87. where does cryptosporidium seen?
  88. sinz of cryptosporidium?
  89. humans able to get cryptosporidium?
  90. how is cryptosporidium spread?
    fecal oral or water contamination
  91. cryptosporidium most commonly seen in?
    young calves or small ruminants.
  92. CS of cryptosporidium
    diarrhea, craming, malaise
  93. what is autoinfection?
    the ability of a parasite to reinfect a host without ever passing out of the host - can lead to overwhelimng infection
  94. dx of cryptosporidium?
    • 4-6microns on FF
    • acid fast staining
  95. tx of cryptosporidium?
  96. public health signif of cryptosporidium?
    can be fatal for immune compri. most human infection d.t water sources

    immunocompetent can still be affect and be very ill
  97. how to handle cryptosporidium?
    highly resistant protozoa. wear masks and gloves, wash hans, drink bottle water only
  98. sarcocystis is a type of ?
  99. sarcocystis more than 1 kind?
  100. most species of sarcocystis pathogenic?
  101. main animals effected by sarcocystis?
    • rottweilers - dermatits, myocarditis,, encephalitis
    • horses - EPM
  102. what is EPM?
    equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
  103. equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is caused by what?
    sarcocystis neurona
  104. what is the definate host of sarcocystis neurona?
  105. whats the intermed host of sarcocystis neurona?
    racoon, armadillo, skunk
  106. what type of host is a host for sarcocystis neurona?
  107. how is sarcocystis neurona spread?
    fecal oral
  108. cs of EPM?
    seizures, collapse, paresis/paralysis, muscle atrophy, ataxia
  109. dx of EMP?
    CSP - find Ab's, blood test only indicates exposure.
  110. tx of EMP?
    marquis antiprotozal paste - ponazuril- expensive
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