Intro to Psychological and Anxiety Disorders

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  1. Defining Psychological Disorders
    deviant + distressful + dysfunctional =DISORDER

    deviance depends on context and culture

    ex. hearing voices vs. hearing ancestors' voices during worship

    • ex 2. homosexuality before and after 1973
    • -stigma and stress related to being gay increase mental health

    ex 3. Recent, ADHD
  2. Understanding Psych Disorders
    Ancient Treatments: Caged or given horrific treatment/therapy

    trephination- drilling skull holes in attempt to relieve spirits

    • Pinel, Philippe -- The Medical Model
    • -physical cause for disorders concept

    • Medical Model
    • 1.Etiology-cause and development
    • 2. Diagnosis
    • 3. Treatment
    • 4. Prognosis
    • Diagnosis--treat--cure w/therapy

    All behavior= nature + nurture (genetic physiological)
  3. Classifying Psych Disorders
    • To Classify: Use DSM-IV-TR
    • -manual with disorder examples

    • How to Diagnose:
    • Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome present?

    • Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Intellectual Disability present?
    • Axis III Is a General Medical Condition, such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis, also present?

    Axis IV Are Psychological or Environmental Problems, such as school or housing issues, also present?

    Axis V What is the Global Assessment of this person's functioning?
  4. Classifying Psychological Disorders
    • 1950s- 60 disorder categories
    • Today- 400 disorder categories

    DSM-IV cases reliable, diagnoses by different professionals are similiar

    DSM-IV cases criticized for "putting any kind of behavior within compass of psychiatry"
  5. Labeling Psychological Disorders
    1. Labels may stigmatize individuals

    2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy

    3. "Insanity" labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes
  6. Five Anxiety Disorders
    • 1. General anxiety disorder
    • 2. Panic Disorder
    • 3. Phobias
    • 4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • 5. Post-traumatic disorder
  7. General Axiety Disorder
    tense, apprehensive, stat of autonomic nervous system arousal

    free-floating-person cannot identify, deal with cause of certain feeling

    depressed mood--high blood pressure

    rare by age 50
  8. Panic Disorder
    unpredictable, episodes of dread

    1/75 w/disorder rises to panic attacks

    heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensation, trembling, dizziness

    smokers double risk--nicotene is a stimulant
  9. Phobias
    persistant, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation

    specific phobias-fear of animals, heights, closed spaces, etc.

    social phobias- extreme shyness
  10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • unwanted repetitive thoughts that won't go away
    • (obsessions thoughts/compulsive behaviors)

    high metabolic activity in frontal lobe areas
  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    after a traumatic experience; feelings of haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, sleep problems

    war veterans, survivors of disasters

    post-traumatic growth- positive change and understanding after a traumatic event
Card Set
Intro to Psychological and Anxiety Disorders
Chapters 48, 49
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