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Defining Psychological Disorders
deviant + distressful + dysfunctional =DISORDER
deviance depends on context and culture
ex. hearing voices vs. hearing ancestors' voices during worship
- ex 2. homosexuality before and after 1973
- -stigma and stress related to being gay increase mental health
ex 3. Recent, ADHD
Understanding Psych Disorders
Ancient Treatments: Caged or given horrific treatment/therapy
trephination- drilling skull holes in attempt to relieve spirits
- Pinel, Philippe -- The Medical Model
- -physical cause for disorders concept
- Medical Model
- 1.Etiology-cause and development
- 2. Diagnosis
- 3. Treatment
- 4. Prognosis
- Diagnosis--treat--cure w/therapy
All behavior= nature + nurture (genetic physiological)
Classifying Psych Disorders
- To Classify: Use DSM-IV-TR
- -manual with disorder examples
- How to Diagnose:
- Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome present?
- Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Intellectual Disability present?
- Axis III Is a General Medical Condition, such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis, also present?
Axis IV Are Psychological or Environmental Problems, such as school or housing issues, also present?
Axis V What is the Global Assessment of this person's functioning?
Classifying Psychological Disorders
- 1950s- 60 disorder categories
- Today- 400 disorder categories
DSM-IV cases reliable
, diagnoses by different professionals are similiar
DSM-IV cases criticized for "putting any kind of behavior within compass of psychiatry"
Labeling Psychological Disorders
1. Labels may stigmatize individuals
2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy
3. "Insanity" labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes
Five Anxiety Disorders
- 1. General anxiety disorder
- 2. Panic Disorder
- 3. Phobias
- 4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- 5. Post-traumatic disorder
General Axiety Disorder
tense, apprehensive, stat of autonomic nervous system arousal
free-floating-person cannot identify, deal with cause of certain feeling
depressed mood--high blood pressure
rare by age 50
unpredictable, episodes of dread
1/75 w/disorder rises to panic attacks
heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensation, trembling, dizziness
smokers double risk--nicotene is a stimulant
persistant, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation
specific phobias-fear of animals, heights, closed spaces, etc.
social phobias- extreme shyness
- unwanted repetitive thoughts that won't go away
- (obsessions thoughts/compulsive behaviors)
high metabolic activity in frontal lobe areas
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
after a traumatic experience; feelings of haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, sleep problems
war veterans, survivors of disasters
post-traumatic growth- positive change and understanding after a traumatic event