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Define reciprocal altruism..
- may not occur in nature except in humans (and that is debatable)
- it is the expectation that help you give will someday be returned to you
- easily invaded by cheater who accept help but doesn't give
In order for reciprocal altruism to work four thing must happen
- 1]there must be stable association (helper and helped remain in contact)
- 2]organisms can recognize individuals
- 3]organisms can remember well
- 4]cheater will be outcast
In regards to human sociobiology, some anthropologists, sociologists, etc. argue that human culture can't be studied as biology because the ______________________________________ is minimal.
genetic influence on social behavior.
result when death rate exceeds birth rate for all populations of a species until all individuals are gone.
_____________ is the ultimate fate of all species.
Why is extinction the ultimate fate of all species?
Evolution. Evolutionary change may gradually remove one typological species and replace it with a genetically modified one.
Define typological species..
A group of organisms in which individuals are members of the species if they sufficiently conform to certain fixed properties or "rights of passage".
Extinction is the ultimate fate of all species, partly because evolutionary change may gradually remove one _____________ species and replace it with a genetically modified one.
Extinction is generally caused by a change in _____________________ for which the population cannot compensate.
Specialists are more susceptible than __________.
____________ are more susceptible than generalists.
Classification of rate of loss. List all three and describe.
- 1]endangered:imminent danger of extinction throughout the range
- 2]threatened:ones approaching endangered status
- 3]rare:not commonly found so might be threatened and/or hard to get information so should be monitored
Define optimal foraging...
the notion that animals should try to maximize energy gain with a minimum of energy expenditure.
The _________ prey would be those that fill the stomach with one individual composed of useful food, and which are relatively common.
Compare and contrast smaller and larger food packages.
- Smaller-Easy to catch but provides less energy, must continue to hunt
- Larger-Harder to kill, less common, provides enough energy, more costly.
Describe the decision process of a predator..
- 1]decide where to look-evaluate potential success (involves distance)
- 2]searching-when in a patch, look for food- decide how long to look (giving-up time)
- 3]pursuit-when prey is found, decide whether or not to pursue, based on probability.
- 4]capturing and handling-
Efficiency of foraging is increased by forming _______________. Describe what that is.
Search images. A predator will identify and focus on a common food that is a good energy package.
Considerations in finding appropriate food.
- 1]food must provide specific nutrient requirements
- 2]not all common foods are acceptable (poisonous)
- 3]risk of predation- good food source doesn't matter if you die (birds at feeder are watchful)
Why is optimal foraging an ongoing process?
Because of optimization. Least fit are lost to natural selection leaving behind the genes of the prey that were able to escape. Their offspring 'should' also be able to escape. Thus the search for optimal prey continues. Red Queen Hypothesis.
Describe the Red Queen hypothesis..
- Predators capture prey least able to escape, so surviving prey pass on genes for greater ability to escape.
- Less efficient predatores die and contribute nothing to the next generation.
- Thus, prey are one step ahead of predatores in becoming more adept.
The Red Queen hypothesis is an interesting hypothesis. What might cause problems in this predator-prey cycle?
Exotic species from another land. The cycle is dependent upon prey becoming adept before predators. If an exotic predator where introduced into a new land and were adaptively ahead of their prey, prey may not be able to recover.