1. A polypeptide chain that has 59 amino acid units and a mass of >10,000 daltons.
  2. Proteins are what percent of the cell's dry weight?
  3. Where are four places proteins are found?
    • All cells of the body
    • Fluids
    • Secretions
    • Excretions
  4. Which protein structure shows specific amino acid sequence.
    primary structure
  5. Which protein structure shows alpha and beta localized folding.
    secondary structure
  6. Which protein structure shows the overall 3d shape of the molecule.
  7. which protein structure is formed when two or more polypeptides join together.
    quaternary structure
  8. This type of bond is formed when amino groups combine
    peptide bonds
  9. these are proteins that yield only amino acids upon hydrolysis.
    simple proteins
  10. these are proteins that have a metal ion attached.
  11. these proteins have an organic group that provides color, an example is hemoglobin.
  12. these are proteins that are formed when lipids are linked together.
  13. these proteins consist of 10-40% carbohydrates. An example is haptoglobin.
  14. These are proteins that consist of >40% carbohydrates
    • mucoproteins
    • (proteoglycans)
  15. these are proteins that are combined with nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA.
  16. These amino acids have no functional group
    simple amino acids
  17. how many essential amino acids are there?
  18. this amino acid is involved in prostate function.
  19. these amino acids have alcohol as a side chain.
    hydroxy amino acids
  20. This is the most simple amino acid.
  21. these amino acids have sulfer on the side chain.
    sulfide amino acids
  22. These amino acids have a basic group on the side chain
    basic amino acids
  23. these amino acids have a carboxyl group on the side chain
    acid amino acids
  24. These amino acids contain a ring group (5 sided) on the side chain.
    heterocyclic amino acids
  25. These amino acids contain an aromatic group (6 sided) on the side chain.
    aromatic group
  26. Approximately ____ of a proteins is nitrogein.
  27. The process by which a protein loses its native or original character.
  28. what are some things protein denaturation could be caused by.
    • heat
    • hydrolysis
    • enzymatic action
    • precipitation
    • exposure to UV
  29. This disease is caused by a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase That, if untreated, results in mental retardation and death.
  30. This is the methodology used to test for phenylketonuria.
    microfluorometric assay
  31. what are the normal values for the microflurometric method in PKU.
    1.2-3.4 mg/dL
  32. What are the normal values for PKU?
  33. This disease is a deficiency of tyrosine amino transferase and occurs in 1:100,00 people.
  34. This disease is an inborn error of metabolism where urine darkens upon standing.
  35. alkaptonruia occurs in how many people?
  36. This disease is caused by a blocking of normal metabolism of leucine, isoleucine and valine. Death occurs in the first year.
    Maple syrup urine disease
  37. What is the methodology used to test for MSUD.
    guthrie test
  38. In alkaptonuria what causes urine to darken upon standing?
    accumulation of homogentisic acid
  39. This amino acid uria causes a dislocation of the lens in the eye and metal retardation
  40. What is the methodology used to test for homocystinuria?
    guthrie test with L-methionine
  41. This defect in amino acid transport causes crystals and renal calculi.
  42. What is the methodology used to test for cystinuria?
    cyanide nitroprusside
  43. This is a deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA that causes a sweaty feet odor in urine.
    isovaleric acidemia
  44. Where are most plasma proteins synthesized?
    in the liver by hepatocytes
  45. Which plasma proteins are synthesized in the Plasma cells?
  46. When amino acids are deaminated what is produced?
    • ammonia
    • ketoacids
  47. This nitrogen balance is seen in growth, pregnancy and repair proocesses, when anabolism is greater than catabolism.
    positive nitrogen balance
  48. This nitrogen balance is seen in tissue wasting, starvation, and burns when catabolism is greater than anabolism.
    negative nitrogen balance
  49. This plasma protein migrates ahead of albumin during electrophoresis. it is decreased in necrosis and increased in steroids.
  50. This protein is a mobile repository of amino acids and is seen in highest concentrations in the serum.
  51. What are the two functions of albumin.
    • maintenance of osmotic pressure
    • binding of various substances in the blood
  52. malnutrition and muscle wasting will cause a(n) _______ in albumin.
  53. Dehydration will cause a(n) _________ in albumin.
  54. This protein accounts for 90% of the fraction of serum proteins that migrate electrophoretically immediately following albumin.
  55. This protein is synthesized by the fetal yolk sack and then by the liver, it is thought to protect the fetus.
  56. this plasma protein in increased in spina bifida, fetal distress, HDN, and twins.
  57. This protein is decreased in down's syndrome.
  58. What is the normal screening time for alpha1-fetoprotein?
    15-20 weeks
  59. What are the two methodologies for AFP? which one is the test of choice?
    • Radial immunodiffusion
    • ELISA-test of choice
  60. This plasma protein is composed of five carbohydrate units attaached to a polypeptide chain and maybe involved with progesterone.
    alpha1-acid glycoprotein
  61. This plasma protein is een increased in diseases associated with cellular proliferation and rheumatiod arthritis.
    alpah1-acid glycoprotein
  62. what are the methodologies used to test for alpha1-acid glycoprotein?
    • radial immunodiffusion
    • nephelometry
  63. This plasma protein is specific for neutralizing chymotrypsin and is associated with asthma and liver disease.
  64. These proteins are a chemical complex of lipids and proteins that are associated with diabetes and cardiac disease.
  65. This protein is composed of two alpha and one beta chain, and is used to bind with hgb to remove hgb by the RE system.
  66. increased levels of this protein are used to evaluate rheumatic disease or to determine severity of hemolysis in transfusion reactions and HDN.
  67. This is a copper containing protein that migrates as an alpha-2-globulin.
  68. _______ of copper is in ceruloplasmin.
    90% or more
  69. Oral estrogen or contraceptives will cause a(n) _________ in ceruloplasmin.
  70. ceruloplasmin is ________ in wilson's disease and menke's kinky hair syndrome.
  71. This large protein is found in the intravascular spaces and is used to inhibit proteases.
  72. Alpha2-macroglobulin reference values for adult ______ is much higher than for adult ______.
    • females
    • males
  73. The major function of this protein is to transport iron and prevent iron loss through the kidneys.
    transferrin B
  74. This is an iron storage complex commonly found in macrophages especially following a hemorrhage.
  75. These proteins are synthesized in the parenchymal cells of the liver and are decreased inn hemolytic disorders.
    hemopexin B
  76. These are several proteins that participate in immune reaction and inflammatory response.
  77. Complement proteins are __________ in lupus, DIC, and malnutrition.
  78. This large protein is classified as a glycoprotein and is a precursor to form a fibrin clot.
  79. These proteins are stimulated by an immune response and consist of IgG, IgA, IgM, igE, and IgD.
  80. This is a complex of three proteins that bind with calcium to regulate heart and skeletal muscle contraction.
  81. This protein, used for early and late diagnosis, is 100% sensitive to detecing AMI from 12 hours to five days after chest pain onset.
    troponin T
  82. This protein is found only in myocardium of adults and is specific for cardiac diseases.
    Troponin I
  83. This protein binds with calcium to produce movement.
    troponin C
  84. This oxygen binding protein is not normally found in plasma unless post cellular injury.
  85. This protein acts as ascavenger molecule and rises sharply when there is tissue necrosis.
    C-reactive protein
  86. these red-violet to red-brown proteins when seen in excess are a sign of abnormal heme synthesis
  87. Which organ regulates copper with absorption by need.
  88. What is the methodology for copper testing?
    • atomic absorption spectroscopy
    • plasma emission spectroscopy
  89. Pregnant women and children should ensure adequate intake of which trace element?
  90. This trace element is essential in proper structural conformation of DNA.
  91. This tumor marker is used to monitor breast cancer patients after mastectomy. it is more predictive than absolute.
    CA 15-3
  92. This tumor marker is is used as a marker for colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas
    CA 19-9
  93. This tumor marker is useful for predicting early recurrence of breast cancer but not recommended for breast cancer screening.
    CA 27-29
  94. This tumor marker is most useful in ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
    CA 125
  95. This tumor marker is used to monitor tumor progess in patients who have diagnosed cancer.
  96. This test is specific for prostate tissue, but not for prostate cancer.
    prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  97. This is the classic method of total protein testing based onb nitrogen determination.
    kjeldahl method
  98. This is a highly precise and accurate total protein method. considered to be the standard by which all other methods are evaluated.
    Kjeldahl method
  99. This is a quick and simple total protein method that requres very little serum , it is based on refraction of light.
  100. This is the most widely used total protein method which is measured colorimetrically.
    biruet method
  101. All major serum proteins carry a ________ charge at pH 8.6 and will migrate towards the anode.
  102. What are the three dyes used in serum protein electrophoresis.
    • ponceau S
    • Amino Black
    • Coomasie blue
  103. What is the dye used to measure proteins in CSF?
    Coomasie Blue
  104. This test is used to detect the presence or absence of immunoglobulins in the bood and assess the type.
    immuno electrophoresis
  105. What are the normal ranges for immuno electrophoresis?
    6.2-7.2 g/dL
  106. This the the most widely used method for direct analysis of albumin.
    dye-binding methods
  107. What is the dye of choice for albumin testing?
    bromcresol green
  108. What are the normal ranges for albumin testing?
    3.8-5.1 g/dL
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