Chapter 28 Reading Check

  1. Progressive Movement
    • fought against monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice
    • The purpose of the Progressives was to use the government as an agency of human welfare
    • had their roots in the Greenback Labor Party of the 1870s and 1880s and the Populist Party of the 1890s
  2. muckrakers
    • corruption of trusts
    • sincerely believed that cures for the ills of American democracy, was more democracy.
  3. Jane Addams and Lillian Wald
    Socialists and feminists gained strength, these women entered the Progressive fight.
  4. Popular magazine in 1902
    Cosmopolitan, Collier’s, and Everybody’s, began flinging the dirt about the trusts.
  5. Who were Progressives?
    mostly middle-class citizens who felt squeezed by both the big trusts above and the restless immigrant hordes working for cheap labor that came from below.
  6. Describe the initiative, the referendum, the secret ballot and the recal and who favored it
    The Progressives favored the “initiative” so that voters could directly propose legislation, the “referendum” so that the people could vote on laws that affected them, and the “recall” to remove bad officials from office. secret ballot (Australian ballot) to counteract the effects of party bosses, and have direct election of U.S. senators to curb corruption
  7. 17th Amendment
    the 17th Amendment provided for direct election of senators
  8. City Managers
    • Progressive cities like Galveston, TX either used, for the first time, expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs
    • designed to take politics out of municipal administration.
  9. Gov. Charles Evans Hughes
    of New York, gained fame by investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies.
  10. fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company
    Progressives also made major improvements in the fight against child labor, especially after a 1911 fire in NYC which killed 146 workers, mostly young women.
  11. Muller vs. Oregon (1908
    found attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuading the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws that protected women workers.
  12. Lochner v. New York
    invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers.
  13. Prohibitionalist Organizations
    Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), founded by Frances E. Willard, and the Anti-Saloon League were formed.
  14. 18th Amendment
    in 1919, the 18th Amendment prohibited the sale and drinking of alcoho
  15. Describe Roosevelts "Square Deal"
    the three Cs: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and the conservation of the United States’ natural resources.
  16. Bureau of Corporation
    was allowed to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce; it was highly useful in “trust-busting.”
  17. Elkins Act
    fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them.
  18. Hepburn Act
    restricted the free passes of railroads.
  19. An example of a "good trust" and a "bad trust"
    • Northern Securities Company, which was organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hil - "bad trust"
    • Steel Company - "Good Trust"
  20. What TR did as far a trusts
    did crack down on over 40 trusts, and he helped dissolve the beef, sugar, fertilizer, and harvester trusts
  21. William Howard Taft
    TRs successor, crushed more trusts than TR, and in one incident, when Taft tried to crack down on U.S. Steel, a company that had personally been allowed by TR to absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company,
  22. Meat Inspection act
    which decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can.
  23. Upton Sinclair
    novel //The Jungle** enlightened the American public to the horrors of the meatpacking industry, thus helping to force changes.
  24. Pure Food and Drug Act
    tried to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
  25. Gifford Pinchot
    head of the federal Division of Forestry, he helped initiate massive conservation project
  26. Aldrich-Vreeland Act
    authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral.
  27. “Dollar Diplomacy,”
    called for Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S., especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal
  28. Two main issues split the Republican party
    (1) the tariff and (2) conservation of lands
  29. Describe new republicans and old republicans
    Old Republicans were high-tariff; new/Progressive Republicans were low tariff.
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Chapter 28 Reading Check
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