1. Ingestion
    intake of food into mouth.
  2. Mastication (2)
    • Pulverizing food (chewing)
    • Starch break down (amylase from saliva)
  3. Deglutition
  4. rhythmic, wavelike contractions that move through tubular alimentary canal. (GI tract)
  5. Passage of reduced food molecules through mucous membranes of small intestine to blood and/or lymphatic cells
  6. Discharge of indigestible wastes (feces)
  7. lingual frenulum
    • mucous membrane attachment on bottom of tongue. (
    • web)
  8. What are the 3 types of taste buds found on tongue?
    • Circumvallate papillae
    • Filiform papillae
    • Fungiform papillae
  9. Circumvallate papillae: (moat around the castle)
    *type of taste responds to
    *Where its located
    • V shape
    • Bitter taste
    • furthest back
  10. Filiform papillae:
    *type of taste responds to
    *Where its located
    *composed of
    • Cone shape
    • no taste buds
    • middle of tongue
    • most numerous
    • Keratin
  11. Fungiform papillae:
    *type of taste responds to
    *Where its located
    • Fungus (fist) shaped
    • sweet,salty, and sour
    • anterior 2/3 of tongue
  12. What does Salivary glands secrete? It is secreated via _____.
    • secrete saliva
    • Ducts
  13. Secretions via ducts
    exocrine glands
  14. Secretions directly into blood
    endocrine glands
  15. Rounded sacs contained in gland at the end of ducts
  16. What are the 3 epithelium of acini and what is each?
    • Serous cells- watery fluid+AMALASE(digestive enzyme)
    • Mucous cells- viscous mucus fluid
    • Myoepithelial cells- surround acini/ducts; mini-pumps
  17. What are the 3 pairs of major salivary glands?
    • Parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  18. Where is the submandibular gland?
    Floor of the mouth near lower jaw
  19. what are serous cells?
    what do they produce:
    They produce a _____ _____ that contains a digestive enzyme called _____ _____.
    secretory cells and they produce a watery fluid that contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase
  20. human submandibular glands are made up of mostly what kinds of cells?
    Serous cells
  21. What is saliva?
    mixture of all three salivary glands
  22. What are the 3 types of saliva from the 3 main glands?
    • Lysozyme
    • IgA
    • mucusbolus
  23. What salivary gland secretes a clear watery fluid rich in amylase?
    Parotid glands
  24. What salivary gland secretes primaraly serous fluid but with more mucus?
    Submandibular gland
  25. What salivary gland secretes primarily thick, stringy mucus?
    sublingual glands
  26. What is the name for baby teeth?
    erupst approx. what age?
    Full set of _____ usually by age _____?
    • Deciduous
    • 6months
    • 20 by age 2
  27. The second set of teeth are also called _____
    permanent set
  28. All second teeth are permanent except ____ these erupt by _____.
    • Third molars
    • by end of adolescence
  29. The permanent teeth have _____ quadrants _____ teeth in total _____ teeth per quadrants.
    • 4
    • 32
    • 8
  30. Incisors:
    how many in each quadrant?
    What are they used for?
    Where are they?
    • 2
    • Cutting
    • first teeth in front and second
  31. Canine:
    Also called?
    Used for?
    How many in each quadrant?
    • Cuspid
    • tearing
    • 1
  32. Premolars:
    Also called?
    How many are in each quadranr?
    Used for what?
    • Bicuspids
    • 2
    • Grinding
  33. Molars:
    Also called?
    Used for what?
    How many in each quadrant?
    • Tricuspid
    • Grinding
    • 3
  34. What are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal wall?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscular layer
    • serosa
  35. What are the 3 functions of the mucosa layer of the alimentary canal wall ?
    What 3 things is it composed by?
    • protection, secretion, absorption
    • Epithelium, connective tissue, smooth muscle
  36. What are the 2 functions of the submucosa layer of the alimentary canal?
    What 4 things is it composed of?
    • Nourishes surrounding tissues, transports absorbed materials.
    • Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves.
  37. What is the function of the muscular layer of the alimentary canal?
    What type of muscle is it composed of?
    • Movements of the tube and its contents
    • Smooth muscle
  38. What are the 2 functions of the serosa layer of the alimentary canal?
    What 2 things is it composed of?
    • Protection and lubrication
    • epithelium and connective tissue
  39. What are the 3 muscle layers of the stomach?
    • Longitudinal layer (Outermost)
    • Circular layer (Middle)
    • Oblique muscle layer (Innermost)
  40. What is another name the longitudinal (Outermost) layer of the stomach?
    Muscularis externa
  41. Most of the stomach epithelium is highly _____?
  42. What is the pH in the stomach?
    1.5- 3.0!!!!
  43. A hormone produced by cells in the pyloric region which increases the secretory output of gastric glands
  44. A hormone produced by some cells in the stomach which decreases the secretory output of gastric juices
  45. What two things denature proteins?
    • Temperature
    • PH
  46. Mucinogens are made by what ?
    Goblet cells
  47. Food and Saliva make up what?
  48. Where is insulin made ?
  49. Where is the gallbladder located?
    Tucked in under liver?
  50. What type of epithelium is in the stomach ?
    Simple columnar
  51. What is the greater omentum composed of ?
    Lymphatic vessels and capillaries
  52. What is the haardest substance in the body and what is it composed of?
    • Enamel
    • Calcium phosphate
  53. The gum is also called what ?
  54. This is bone like, is what the tooth is mostly made up of and it is right under the enamel?
  55. Tooth:
    Contains nerves, blood, and lymph vessels
    Pulp cavity
  56. Tooth:
    Fibrous ligament that lines the socket and achors the tooth
    Periodontal membrane
  57. Tooth:
    The thin adhesive layer between tooth and periodontal ligament
  58. Tooth:
    The opening where the nerves come in
    Apical foramen
  59. The smooth muscle layer of the digestive tract work of the basis of what?
  60. What type of epithelium is in the esophagus?
    Stratified squamous
  61. The sphincter that is between the esophagus and the stomach is called _____ or _____ _____ sphincter.
    • Cardiac
    • Lower esophageal
  62. Food and gastric juices make up what ?
  63. Stomach:
    The neck contains what two things?
    Mucous cells and goblet cells
  64. Parietal cells also called Oxyntic cells in Stomach make what 2 things?
    • Instrinsic factor
    • HCl
  65. What do the intrinsic factor that is made by the parietal cells in the stomach aid in?
    B-12 absorption
  66. The HCl in the stomach is made by the _____ cells. Its functions are to _____ and is required to convert Pepsinogen into _____.
    • Parietal
    • Kill pathogens
    • Pepsin
  67. Stomach:
    Chief cells are also called _____ and secrete _____.
    • Zymogenic cells
    • Pepsinogen
  68. Pepsin is a what?
    Protein splitting enzyme
  69. What converts pepsinogen into pepsin?
  70. What are the four main components of gastric juice?
    • Pepsinogen/pepsin
    • HCl
    • Mucus
    • Intrinsic factor
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