1. how the drug physiologically and/or biochemically effects the body is known as ...
  2. how the drug is disposed or cleared by the body is known as ...
  3. PD or PK?
    ... leads us to choose drugs that produce the desired main effects and avoid the most negative side effects for the patients.
  4. PD or PK?
    ... leads us to conside the processing of the dose andhow patient can rid itself of the drug and return to the resting state. This may be desired or wanted to be delayed.
  5. The nervous system is primarily under control of the ...
    hypothalamus (mostly) and the pituitary (partly)
  6. 3 functions of the nervous system. list in consecutive order.
    • 1- sensory
    • 2- integrative
    • 3- motor
  7. what is the importance of the nervous system? (4)
    • 1- it is the primary communication and control center
    • 2- functions in concert with endocrine system
    • 3- allows adaptation to the environment
    • 4- maintains homeostasis
  8. In the nervous system, messages or impulses are propagated via ...
    nerve fibers
  9. ... is an electronically excitable cell.
  10. what signal type(s) does a neuron use to propagate a signal?
    electrical AND chemical signals
  11. ... are specialized connections from one neuron to others.
  12. Which part of the neuron initially carries impulses toward the nerve cell?
  13. which part of the neruon carries the impulse away from the nerve cell?
  14. a nerve fiber that has a membrane that is positive charge on the outside and a negative inside charge is known as a ...
    polarized or "resting" fiber
  15. The reduction of a membranes resting potential so that it becomes less negative is known as ...
  16. state at which the membrane charges return to their original states is known as ...
  17. a neurons axon will terminate at a large number of ...
    axon terminals or TELODENDRA
  18. Which part of a Telodendra will pass to nerve impulse to its adjacent structure?
    synaptic end bulbs
  19. nerve impulses allow neurotransmitters to emit into ...
  20. The adrenal gland produces the neurotransmitter ...
  21. british name for epinephrine is ...
  22. Structures of the Nervous system (4)
    • 1- brain
    • 2- spinal cord
    • 3- peripheral ganglia
    • 4- nerve fibers
  23. ions move through ... Channels
    Voltage gated channels
  24. The ... Is responsible for repolarizing the cell membrane
    Na-K-ATP pump
  25. Image Upload 1
    Image Upload 2
  26. Name 5 neurotransmitters
    • 1- acetylcholine
    • 2- norepinephrine
    • 3- dopamine
    • 4- serotonin
    • 5- GABA
  27. when pre-synaptic axon recollect neurotransmitter for the next signal
    synaptic reuptake
  28. the nervous system dividend that includes the brain and spinal cord
  29. the nervous system divident that includes the bran and spinal cord
  30. ... connects the CNS with endocrine glands, muscles through neurtoransmitters and receptors
    The PNS
  31. Nerve cells that carry impulses from receptors in the periphery to the CNS
    afferent nerve cells
  32. Nerve cells that carry impulses from the CNS to the receptors on muscles and glands
    Efferent nerve cells
  33. Voluntary or skeletal muscle control is controlled by the ... system
    somatic nervous system
  34. The ... system carries impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscle
    Somatic Nervous System
  35. involuntary and unconscious muscle control is controlled by the ... system
    autonomic nervous system
  36. ... carries impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
    autonomic nervous system
  37. part of autonomic NS that is associated with "rest and digest"
    parasympathetic system
  38. part of autonomic system associated with "fight or flight"
    sympathetic system
  39. The parasympathetic system uses ... receptors
  40. They sympathetic system uses ... receptors
  41. drugs that block Acetylcholine receptors are ...
  42. anticholinergics are also known as ...
  43. stimulation causes activation of cholinergic effects. This is also known as
  44. neurotransmitter Acetylcholine stimulates Acetylcholine receptors, which inturn stimulate which receptors? (2)
    • 1- Nicotinic receptors
    • 2- Muscarinic receptors
  45. The neurotransmitter ... works on both Alpha receptors
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  46. which enzyme on acetylcholine triggers its degradation into choline and acetyl coenzyme A, thus terminating its effect.
  47. receptors which can be classified as a subtype of adrenergic receptor, their activation triggers a complex range of autonomic responses.
    Alpha receptors
  48. condition of having dilated pupils
  49. two subtypes of Alpha-1 receptors
    • 1- Alpha-1 Agonists
    • 2- Alpha-2 Blockers
  50. Which Alpha receptor is not intentionally used in Veterinary Medicine?
    Alpha-1 Agonists
  51. Alpha receptor for vasocontriction
    Alpha-1 agonists
  52. Alpha receptor for vasodilation
    Alpha-1 blockers
  53. drug used for vasodilation
  54. Alpha receptor for sedation and analgesia
    Alpha-2 agonists
  55. Two types of Alpha-2 subtype receptors
    • 1- Alpha-2 agonists
    • 2- Alpha-2 antagonists
  56. Name two drugs that we use as a Alpha-2 antagonists
    • 1- yohimbine
    • 2- atipamazole
  57. which neurotransmitter works on both alpha receptors
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  58. G-protein couples receptors
    Beta receptors
  59. which receptor activates a Gs proteins
    beta receptors
  60. increased ... activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates cellular proteins.
    cAMP or Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
  61. drug used for sedation and analgesia
  62. increased activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates cellular proteins.
    cAMP or Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
  63. important receptors for signal transduction
    Beta-1 receptor
  64. receptors found [to increase functionality] in the heart and renal juxtaglomerular cells
    Beta-1 receptors
  65. receptors found in [to relax] bronchial smooth muscle and uterine muscle
    Beta-2 receptors
  66. Name 3 Beta-2 receptor inhalant drugs
    • 1- Albuterol
    • 2- Levoalbuterol
    • 3- Terbutaline (orally)
  67. contracts uterine muscles and early labor
    Terbutaline (orally)
  68. cholinergic agents are also known as ...
  69. promotes gastric emptying and thus controlling vomit
  70. used to diagnose myasthenia gravis or reverse neuromuscular blockade
  71. reverse neuromuscular blockade or treat urinary retention
  72. used to treat myasthenia gravis but may cause heart block, bradycardia, hypotension, and increase respiratory secretions.
  73. agent that treats sinus bradycardia (heart block)
  74. an anticholinergic agent used in the ER/premed? (2)
    • 1- Atropine
    • 2- Glycopyrrolate
  75. older anticholinergic used for motion sickness
  76. antidote for organophosphate intoxication
  77. Adrenergic agents are also called ...
  78. an agent that can be used to stimulate the heart
  79. agent used for treating congestive heart failure
  80. Adrenergic Agents (9)
    • 1- Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    • 2- Isoproterenol
    • 3- Phenylephrine
    • 4- Dopamine
    • 5- Phenylpropanolamine
    • 6- Dobutamine
    • 7- Ephedrine
    • 8- Terbutaline
    • 9- Albuterol/levoalbuterol
  81. name a nasal vasoconstrictor and treatment for a hypotension
  82. Precursor of epinephrine and norepinephrine
  83. agent in which an overdose may cause shock, heart failure, and increase remal perfusion
  84. agent that may treat urinary incontinence in female dogs
  85. short term treatment of hypotension, heart failure
  86. agent used to treat short term treatment of hypotension and heart failure
  87. Three agents used as a bronchodilator
    • 1- Ephedrine
    • 2- Terbutaline
    • 3- Albuterol/Levoalbuterol
  88. Which receptors effect the strength of the heart contraction by increasing AV Node conduction velocity and renin release by the renal juxtaglomerular cells?
    Beta-1 Receptors exist for which organs and have what effect?
  89. Which receptors cause the bronchial smooth muscle to dialate and the Uterine muscles to relax?
    Beta-2 receptors exist for which organs and have what effect?
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