Chapter 10 Science

  1. Hydrosphere
    Water both on and inside Earth
  2. What is the water cycle?
    The continuous circulation of water from Earth to the atmosphere and back.
  3. What helps regulate the climates of the earth?
    Ocean currents
  4. What is the life-sustaining substance that helps make earth suitable for living?
  5. What are some uses for water?
    We drink it, wash in it, and play in it. We use it for transportation and recreation.
  6. Why is earth sometimes refered to as the blue planet?
    Because of its great amount of water.
  7. How much percent of the earth's surface is covered by water?
    70%, no other planet has any liquid water on its surface!
  8. Dissolve
    To mix with another substance forming a solution
  9. Solvent
    A substance capable of dissolving another substance
  10. What gives water its unique properties?
    The atoms; One oxygen combined with two hydrogen
  11. Why do water molecules stick to one another and to many other substances?
    Because opposites attract, the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atoms attract to another
  12. What are some properties of water?
    • 1)The ability to dissolve other substances to form solutions makes it a great solvent, and useful for washing and cooking.
    • 2) Density is another property of water
  13. What is Density?
    The measure of how compact matter is
  14. When is water the most dense?
    In its liquid state
  15. How many states can water exist in at one time?
    • Three; example the Artic Ocean
    • Icebergs are in solid state
    • Ocean water is liquid state
    • Water vapors are in the air
  16. Water Cycle
    The process by which water constantly circulates throughout the earth and its atmosphere
  17. Evaporation
    The change of a liquid into a gas
  18. Transpiration
    The evaporation of excess water from a plant
  19. Condensation
    • The change of a gas into a liquid
    • Falls as precipitation like rain or mist
    • Forms clouds
  20. Precipitation
    • A form of water that falls from the atmosphere to earth
    • (snow, sleet or hail)
  21. Surface Water
    • The water that can be seen on the surface of the earth
    • (Rivers, lakes, and oceans)
  22. Ground Water
    The water within the earth
  23. Aquifer
    A mass of rock or sediment the stores groundwater
  24. Artesian Well
    A spring; groundwater trapped between layers of rock that flows to the surface through an opening
  25. What is most of the water on Earth?
    Ocean Water
  26. What needs freshwater to survive?
    People need freshwater for drinking, cooking, washing, and irrigating crops. Household plants need freshwater to grow.
  27. What is water from an Artesian well often called?
    Fossil water because it comes from the ground
  28. Estuary
    The place where a river meets an ocean or sea
  29. Salinity
    The amount of salt that is dissolved into water
  30. Brackish
    A mixture of saltwater and freshwater
  31. Name some things that make their home in and Estuary?
    Heron, crabs and sea lions
  32. Why is it important to protect estuaries?
    To protect the animals and plants that live there
  33. Watershed
    An area of land from which water draints into a particular water system
  34. What is a river basin
    A large watershed
  35. What can affect the direction and quality of water in a watershed?
    • Natural forces such as earthquakes and volcanic acitivity. These can change surrounding land formations.
    • Floods and droughts can also have serious effects on watersheds. Floods can change the course of streams, and droughts can cause part of the watershed to dry out.
  36. How is water necessary for human survival?
    It cools and refreshes us.
  37. How can water be deadly?
    Ocean waves are powerful and can be destructive
  38. How can people affect watersheds carelessly?
    By dumping chemicals, fertilizers, or waste chemicals into a body of water. This causes pollution, it will affect the ground water supply, and it can affect the plant and animal life.
  39. How does pollution affect people?
    It can make their water supply dangerous to drink
  40. What does an Environmental scientist do?
    Studies insects and larvae that live in streams to monitor the health of streams. They can track the path of pollution.
Card Set
Chapter 10 Science
Notes for Baby Girl