AP World- Ch. 26 Vocab

  1. Selim III
    Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
  2. Mahmud II
    Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
  3. Tanzimat Reforms
    Series of reforms in Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Westernstyle university, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
  4. Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
    Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution
  5. Suez Canal
    Built across Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by European investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment.
  6. Mahdi Muhammad Achmad
    Head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from Prophet; proclaimed both Egyptians and British as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883
  7. Khalifa Abdallahi
    Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defeated by British General Kitchener in 1598
  8. Nurhaci
    Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria; entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing.
  9. Banner armies
    Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and establish Qing dynasty
  10. Kangxi
    Confucian scholar and Manchu emperor of Qing dynasty from 1661 to 1722; established high degree of Sintification among the Manchus.
  11. Compradors
    Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
  12. Opium War
    Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade.
  13. Taiping Rebellion
    Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry.
  14. Self-strengthening movement
  15. Boxer Rebellion
    Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from China; failed because of intervention of armies of Western powers in China; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials
  16. Cixi
    Ultraconservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty; supported Boxer Rebellion in 1898 as a means of driving out Westerners
  17. Sun-Yat-sen
    Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died in 1925
  18. Puyi
    Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912.
Card Set
AP World- Ch. 26 Vocab