Professional Baking Chapter 4

  1. Absorption
    The amount of water a flour can take up and hold while being made into a simple dough, based on a predetermined standard dough consistency or stiffness; expressed as a percentage of the weight of flour.
  2. Almond paste
    A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar.
  3. Amylase
    An enzyme in flour that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
  4. Ash
    The mineral content of flour; expressed as a percentage of the total weight.
  5. Baking ammonia
    A leavening ingredient that releases ammonia gas and carbon dioxide.
  6. Bolting
    The process of sifting flour, primarily to separate the bran.
  7. Bran
    The hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and other grains.
  8. Bran flour
    Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
  9. Bread flour
    Strong flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.
  10. Break system
    A milling system to produce various grades of flour by repeatedly breaking the grains between rollers and sifting.
  11. Brown sugar
    Regular granulated sucrose containing impurities that give it a distinctive flavor.
  12. Cake flour
    A fine, white flour made from soft wheat.
  13. Carbohydrate
    Any of a group of compounds, including starches and sugars, that supply energy to the body.
  14. Chemical leavener
    A leavener such as baking soda, baking powder, or baking ammonia, which releases gases produced by chemical reactions.
  15. Chocolate liquor
    Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter.
  16. Clear flour
    A tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.
  17. Cocoa
    The dry powder that remains after cocoa butter is pressed out of chocolate liquor.
  18. Cocoa butter
    A white or yellowish fat found in natural chocolate.
  19. Confectioner’s sugar
    Sucrose ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little cornstarch to prevent caking.
  20. Creaming
    The process of beating fat and sugar together to blend them uniformly and to incorporate air.
  21. Crème fraîche (krem fresh)
    A slightly aged, cultured heavy cream with a slightly tangy flavor.
  22. Couverture
    Natural, sweet chocolate containing no added fats other than natural cocoa butter; used for dipping, molding, coating, and similar purposes.
  23. Dessert syrup
    A flavored sugar syrup used to flavor and moisten cakes and other desserts.
  24. Diastase
    Various enzymes, found in flour and in diastatic malt, that convert starch into sugar.
  25. Double-acting baking powder
    Baking powder that releases some of its gases when it is mixed with water and the remaining gases when it is heated.
  26. Emulsified shortening
    Shortening containing emulsifiers so it can be used for high-ratio cakes.
  27. Emulsion
    A uniform mixture of two or more unmixable substances.
  28. Endosperm
    The starchy inner portion of grain kernels.
  29. Extract
    A flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils or other substances dissolved in alcohol.
  30. Extraction
    The portion of the grain kernel that is separated into a particular grade of flour. Usually expressed as a percentage.
  31. Fermentation
    The process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
  32. Foaming
    The process of whipping eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.
  33. Gelatin
    A water-soluble protein extracted from animal tissue; used as a jelling agent.
  34. Germ
    plant embryo portion of a grain kernel.
  35. Glucose
    A simple sugar available in the form of a clear, colorless, tasteless syrup.
  36. Gluten
    An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
  37. Granulated sugar
    Sucrose in a fine crystalline form.
  38. Hard wheat
    Wheat high in protein.
  39. Homogenized milk
    Milk processed so the cream does not separate out.
  40. Hydrogenation
    A process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.
  41. Invert sugar
    A mixture of two simple sugars, dextrose and levulose, resulting from the breakdown of sucrose.
  42. Kernel paste
    A nut paste, similar to almond paste, made of apricot kernels and sugar.
  43. Leavening
    The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
  44. Malt syrup
    A type of syrup containing maltose sugar, extracted from sprouted barley.
  45. Margarine
    An artificial butter product made of hydrogenated fats and flavorings.
  46. Molasses
    A heavy brown syrup made from sugarcane.
  47. Patent flour
    A fine grade of wheat flour milled from the inner portions of the kernel.
  48. Pasteurized
    Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.
  49. Pastry flour
    A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
  50. Pectin
    A soluble plant fiber, used primarily as a jelling agent for fruit preserves and jams.
  51. Pentosan
    A category of carbohydrate gums present in wheat flour and having strong water absorption ability.
  52. Regular shortening
    Any basic shortening without emulsifiers, used for creaming methods and for icings.
  53. Rye blend
    A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.
  54. Rye meal
    Coarse rye flour.
  55. Simple syrup
    A syrup consisting of sucrose and water in varying proportions.
  56. Single-acting baking powder
    Baking powder that releases gases as soon as it is mixed with water.
  57. Soft wheat
    Wheat low in protein.
  58. Straight flour
    Flour made from the entire wheat kernel minus the bran and germ.
  59. Strong flour
    Flour with a high protein content.
  60. Sucrose
    The chemical name for regular granulated sugar and confectioners’ sugar.
  61. Syrup
    One or more types of sugar dissolved in water, often with small amounts of other compounds or impurities that give the syrup flavor.
  62. Tempering
    The process of melting and cooling chocolate to a specific temperature in order to prepare it for dipping, coating, or molding.
  63. Whole wheat flour
    Flour made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.
  64. Weak flour
    Flour with a low protein content.
Card Set
Professional Baking Chapter 4
Professional Baking Chapter 4 vocabulary on various baking ingredients