Bio Digestion

  1. what are the chemicals of life?
    Vitamins and Minerals, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Carbohydrates
  2. What roles do vitamins and minerals preform in the body?
    • -They help with chemical reactions
    • -They are often found in complex chemicals
  3. What roles do carbohydrates play?
    • -Primary energy source of cells
    • -Structural material of plant cell walls
  4. What roles do proteins have?
    • -Structural components of the cell
    • -Composed of amino acids
  5. What are the roles of lipids?
    • -Energy storage
    • -Structural components of the cell membrane
  6. What are the roles of nucleic acids?
    • -Genetic material that directs cell activity
    • -Composed of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen bases
  7. What is a carbohydrate?
    a molecule composed of sugar subunits that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
  8. Carbohydrates are often described as energy nutrients, why?
    They provide a fast source of energy
  9. All disaccharides are formed by a process called...
    dehydration synthesis in which a water molecule is formed from the two monosaccharide molecules
  10. The opposite reaction of dehydration synthesis is called...
    hydrolysis in which a water molecule is used to break the bond of the disaccharide
  11. cellulose
    a plant polysaccharide that makes up plant cell walls
  12. glycogen
    the form of carbohydrate storage in animals
  13. starch
    a plant carbohydrate used to store energy
  14. Fat
    a lipid composed of glycerol and saturated fatty acids; solid at room temperature
  15. triglyceride
    a lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
  16. oil
    a lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids; liquid at room temperature
  17. Triglycerides that are solid at room temperature are called...
  18. Saturated fats means that...
    there is only a single bond between the carbon atoms
  19. Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
    is the bad cholesterol because when the LDL level increases to the point that it exceeds the number of receptor sites then the LDL does bad things like clogs arteries
  20. High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
    Good cholesterol because it carries bad cholesterol back to the liver which begins breaking it down
  21. Amino acid
    a chemical that contains nitrogen; can be linked together to form proteins
  22. Protein
    a chain of amino acids that form the structural parts of cells or act as antibodies or enzymes
  23. Antibodies are...
    specialized proteins that help the body defend itself against disease
  24. Enzymes are...
    proteins that speed chemical reactions
  25. In part proteins can help to explain diversity because...
    a limited number of carbohydrates and lipids are found in all living things, but the array of proteins is almost infinite
  26. Proteins are composed of...
    20 different amino acids
  27. the covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the adjoining amino acids is called a...
    Peptide bond
  28. Essential amino acids are...
    the eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must be obtained from your diet
  29. the four levels of protein structure are..
    primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary
  30. Primary structure of protein is...
    the unique sequence of amino acids in the chain
  31. Secondary structure in protein is...
    folds and coils that occur along the length of the chain
  32. Tertiary structure in protein is...
    further folding of the polypeptide chain
  33. Quaternary proteins are...
    large globular proteins formed from two or more polypeptides
  34. denatured
    the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted, causing a temporary change in shape
  35. coagulation
    the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted, causing a permanent change in shape
  36. catalyst
    a chemical that increases the rate of chemical reactions without altering the products or being altered itself
  37. enzyme
    a protein catalyst that permits chemical reactions to proceed at low temperatures
  38. substrate
    a molecule on which an enzyme works
  39. active site
    the area of an enzyme that combines with the substrate
  40. cofactor
    an inorganic ion that helps an enzyme combine with a substrate molecule
  41. coenzyme
    an organic molecule synthesized from a vitamin that helps an enzyme to combine with a substrate molecule
  42. Factors affecting enzyme reactions
    pH, substrate molecule concentration, temperature, competitive inhibiton
  43. competitive inhibitor
    a molecule with a shape complementary to a specific enzyme that competes with the substrate for access to the active site of the enzyme and blocks chemical reactions
  44. feedback inhibition
    the inhibition of an enzyme in a metabolic pathway by the final product of that pathway
  45. precursor activity
    the activation of the last enzyme in a metabolic pathway by the initial substrate
  46. allosteric activity
    a change in an enzyme caused by the binding of a molecule
  47. four components of the digestive process
    • ingestion
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • egestion
  48. What do the amylase enzymes in saliva do?
    • -initiate carbohydrate breakdown
    • -dissolves food particles
    • -activates taste buds
    • -lubricates the food
  49. What do teeth do?
    bite, tear, grind, and crush food into smaller particles
  50. Peristalsis
    rhythmic, wavelike contractions of muscle that move food along the gastrointestinal tract
  51. What muscles regulate the movement of food in and out of the stomach?
    sphincter muscles
  52. Digestive fluids in the stomach include...
    hydrochloric acid (HCL), pepsinogens, and mucus
  53. What does hydrochloric acid (HCL) do in the stomach?
    kills pathogens and converts pepsinogen into pepsin
  54. what does pepsin do in the stomach?
    digests proteins
  55. what does mucus do in the stomach?
    protects the stomach from HCL and pepsin
  56. What are the three components of the small intestine? (in order)
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  57. villi
    small, fingerlike projections that extend into the small intestine to increase the surface area for absorption
  58. mircovilli
    microscopic, fingerlike projections of the cell membrane
  59. capillary
    a blood vessel that connects arteries and veins; the site of fluid and gas exchange
  60. lacteal
    a small vessel that transports the products of fat digestion to the circulatory system
  61. secretin
    a hormone released from the duodenum that stimulates pancreatic and bile secretions
  62. enterokinase
    an enzyme of the smell intestine that converts trypsinogen to trypsin
  63. trypsin
    a protein digesting enzyme
  64. erepsin
    an enzyme that completes protein digestion by converting short-chain peptides to amino acids
  65. lipase
    a lipid digesting enzyme
  66. what does the pancreas secrete?
    • lipase
    • trypsin
    • erepsin
    • pancreatic amylases
  67. bile salt
    a component of bile that breaks down large fat globules
  68. cholecystokinin
    a hormone secreted by the small intestine that stimulates the release of bile salts
  69. detoxify
    to remove the effects of a poison
  70. gallstone
    crystals of bile salts that form in the gallbladder
  71. jaundice
    the yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues brought about by the collection of bile pigments in the blood
  72. cirrhosis
    chronic inflammation of the liver tissue characterized by growth of nonfunctioning fibrous tissue
  73. colon
    the largest segment of the large intestine, where water reabsorption occurs
  74. gastrin
    a hormone secreted by the stomach that stimulates the release of HCI
  75. enterogastrone
    a hormone secreted by the small intestine that decreases gastric secretions and motility
  76. What is the function of the mouth?
    chewing of food and digestion of starch
  77. what is the function of the stomach?
    storage of food and initial digestion
  78. what is the function of the small intestine?
    digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids; the absorption of nutrients
  79. what is the function of the pancreas?
    production of digestive enzymes that act on food in the small intestine; storage of bicarbonate ions that neutralize stomach acid in the small intestine
  80. what is the function of the large intestine?
    absorption of water and storage of undigested food
  81. What do the salivary glands secrete?
    salivary amylase
  82. what does the stomach secrete?
    • hydrochloric acid
    • pepsinogen
    • mucus
  83. what does the pancreas secrete?
    • pancreatic amylase
    • bicarbonate ions
    • trypsinogen
    • lipase
    • erepsin
    • maltase
  84. what does the small intestine secrete?
    • erepsin
    • disaccharidases (maltase)
  85. what does the liver secrete?
  86. what does the gallbladder secrete?
  87. what does the large intestine secrete?
  88. what is the function of salivary amylase (salivary glands)?
    initiates the breakdown of polysaccharides to simpler carbohydrates
  89. what is the function of hydrochloric acid (stomach)?
    converts pepsinogen to pepsin, kills microbes
  90. what is the function of pepsinogen (stomach)?
    when converted to pepsin, initiates the digestion of proteins
  91. what is the function of mucus (stomach)?
    protects the stomach from pepsin and HCI
  92. what is the function of pancreatic amylase (pancreas)?
    continuous breakdown of carbohydrates into disaccharides
  93. what is the function of bicarbonate ions (pancreas)?
    neutralize HCI from the stomach
  94. what is the function of trypsinogen (pancreas)?
    when activated to trypsin, converts long chain peptides into short chain peptides
  95. what is the function of lipase (pancreas)?
    breaks down fats to glycerol and fatty acids
  96. what is the function of erepsin (small intestine)?
    completes the breakdown of proteins
  97. what is the function of disaccharidesese/maltase (small intestine)?
    break down disaccharides (e.g. maltose) into monosaccharides
  98. what is the function of bile in the liver?
    emulsifies fat
  99. what is the function of bile in the gallbladder?
    stores and secretes concentrated bile from the liver
  100. what is the function of mucus in the large intestine?
    helps movement of food waste
  101. What is the pH level in the mouth?
  102. What is the pH of the stomach?
  103. What is the pH of the small intestine?
  104. What is cholecystokinin (CCK)?
    A hormone secreted by the small intestine that stimulates the release of bile salts
  105. Lacteals
    Small vessels that transport the products of fat digestion to circulatory system
  106. Secretin
    A hormone released from the duodenum that stimulates pancreatic and bile salts
  107. Trans fats
    the hydrogenation of unsaturated fats into saturated fats, hard to break down
  108. Steriods
    Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
  109. Cholesterol
    An important steroid is a component in animals cell membranes
  110. Chaperoins
    Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
  111. Intracellular digestion
    food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested with a food vacuole
  112. Extracellular digestion
    is the breakdown of food particles outside of cells, occurs in compartments
  113. Gastrovascular cavity
    Animals with simple body plans have this. It functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients
  114. Complete digestive tract or alimentary canal
    More complex animals have a digestive tube with two openings
  115. Proper name for the throat
    pharynx, it opens to both the esophagus and the trachea
  116. esophagus
    conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by perstalsis
  117. Swallowing causes...
    the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea (glottis) and the bolus is guided by the larynx
  118. trachea leads to...
    the lungs
  119. Chief cells
    secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately, in the stomach
  120. Cecum
    aids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestine meet
  121. The human cecum has an extension, what is it called and what is its purpose?
    appendix, minor role in immunity
  122. Dentition
    an animals assortment of teeth, structural variation reflecting diet
Card Set
Bio Digestion
bio digestion unit flashcards