# Biolab140.txt

 Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for tidal volume ( TV): Define: the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quite breathingHow to calculate:Typical value: 500 mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): Define: amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort.How to calculate:Typical value: 3000 mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): Define: amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effortHow to calculate:Typical volume: 1200 mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for residual volume(RV): Define: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration ; amount of air that can never be voluntarily exhaledHow to calculate: Typical value: 1300 mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for vital capacity (VC): Define: the amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest breath possible.How to calculate: VC=ERV+ TV + IRVTypical value: 4700 mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for inspiratory capacity (IC): Define: the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration How to calculate: IC = TV + IRVTypical value: 3500mL Define, know how to calculate, and list the typical value for functional residual capacity: Define: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expirationHow to calculate: FRC = RV + ERV Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the total lung capacity (TLC): Define: the maximum amount of air the lungs can contain How to calculate: TLC = RV + VCTypical value: 6000 mL Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the forced Expiratory volume: Define: the volume of air or the percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time intervalHow to calculate: Typical value: 75% -85% of vital capacity in 1.0 second Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the minute ventilation rate (MVR): Define: the amount of air inhaled per minuteHow to calculate: MVR = TV x Respiratory rateTypical value: 6000mL/min Define, know how to calculate, list the typical value for the alveolar ventilation rate (AVR): Define: the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxideHow to calculate: Typical value: 4200 mL/min The temporary cessation of breathing (one or more skipped breaths) is called: Apnea Relaxed, quitebreathing is called: Eupnea Labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath is called: Dyspnea Increased rate and depth of breathing in response. To exercise, pain, or other conditions is called: Hyperpnea Accelerated respiration is called: Tachypnea A difficiency of oxygen in tissues or the inability to use oxygen is called: Hypoxia A PCO2 greater than 43 mm Hg is called: Hypercapnia A PCO2 less than 37 mm Hg is called: Hypocapnia A blood pH lower than 7.35 is called: Acidosis A blood pH greater than 7.45 is called: Alkalosis Increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand, frequently associated with anxiety; expels CO2 faster than it is produced , thus lowering the blood CO2 concentration and raising the blood pH is called: Hyperventilation Reduced pulmonary ventilation;leads to an increase in blood CO2 concentration if ventilation is insufficient to expel CO2 as fast as it is produced is called: Hypoventilation The respiratory volumes and capacities can be measured using an instrument called a: Spirometer Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min. calculate the the inpsiratory reserve volume: IRV = VC - (TV+ ERV)IRV = 900 Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min. calculate the inspiratory capacity: IC = TV + IRVIC = 2000 Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min. calculate the functional residual capacity: FRC = ERV + RV (assume 1200)FRC = 2100 + 1200FRC = 3300 Lab test results: Tidal volume 1100, expiratory reserve volume 2100, vital capacity 2300, respiratory rate 16/min. determine the minute ventilation rate: MVR = respiratory rate x TVMVR = 16 x 1100MVR = 17600 calculate the functional residual capacity of an indiviual with an expiratroy reserve volume of 1300 mL, a residual voulme of 1100 mL, and an inspiratory reserve volume of 3000 mL (show work): FRC = ERV + RVFRC = 1300 + 1100FRC = 2400 calculate the inspiratory reserve volme of an individual wiht a vital capacity of 4400 mL., and expiratory reserve volme of 1300 mL, and a tidal volme of 500 mL ( show work) IRV = VC - ( TV = ERV)IRV = 4400 - (500-1300)IRV = 4400 - 800IRV = 3600 calculate the tidal volume of an individual with a total lung capacity of 5800 mL, a residual voume of 1000 mL, and inspiratory reserve volume of 2400 mL, an expriatory reserve volume of 1600 mL, and a vital capaticy of 4800 mL (show work) TV = TLC - (IRC + ERV + RV)TV = 5800 - (2400 + 1600 + 1000)TV = 5800 - 5000TV = 800 calculate the inspiratory capacity of an individual with a vital capacity of 4400 mL, a residual volume of 1300 mL, and a functional residual capacity of 2500 mL ,and a tidal volume of 500 mL ( show work) IC = TV + IRVIRV = VC - (TV + ERV)ERV= FRV - RV ERV = 2500-1300ERV = 1200IRV = VC - (TV + ERV)IRV = 4400 - (500+ 1200)IRV = 2700IC = TV + IRV IC = 500 + 2700IC = 3200 If Fred has a tidal volume of 600 mL, and a breathing rate of 12 breaths/min. calculate Fred's minute ventilation rate (show work) MVR= RESPIRTATORY RATE X TVMVR = 12 X 600MVR = 7200 assumming Fred's anatomical dead space is 200 mL, calculate his alveolar ventilation rate ( show work) write the chemcial equation that demonstrates how CO2 and H+ (pH) are directly related to one another: Explain why exhaling into the solution caused a color change: CO2 is an acid when combinded with H2O the rxn is into carbonic acid (H2CO3). The carbonic acid mixed with a base neutralizes the solution, which is why the solution changed from pink to clear. why did the color change occur more quickly after exercise than under resting conditions: where are the peripheral chemoreceptors found? carotid bodies and aoritc bodies what are the principle stimuli for the peripheral chemoreceptors? blood gas concentration and blood pH where are the central chemoreceptors found? meduall oblongata what is the principle stimulus for the central chemoreceptors? pH of the CSF describe what happens during hyperventilation, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded hyperventilation: cause of change: blowing off CO2 faster than the body produces it condition result: alkalosischemoreceptors: bothhow respond: decrease describe what happens during re-breathing air, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded cause of change: no O2 available, inhaled CO2 or increased CO2, and increased pH levelscondition result: acidosiswhich receptors: peripheralhow respond: increase describe what happens during breath holding, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded cause of change: decrease O2, increased CO2condition result: acidosischemoreceptors: bothhow respond: increase describe what happens during exercise, include the underlying cause of change, conditions that resulted, and which chemoreceptors responded and how they responded cause of change: no change in CO2 or O2 levelscondition result: increased pulmonary ventilation keeps blood gas valuse the samereceptors: activity in muscles what combinds with water to form carbonic acid? CO2 when carbonic acid dissociates, hydrogen (H +) and what other ion is released? HCO3 - As the blood concentration of CO2 increases, the pH of the blood (increase/decreases/does not change). decreases if the level of O2 in the blood decreases signigicantly ( < 60 mm Hg), the breathing rate will __________(increase/ decrease/ not change). what receptors are primarily responsible for triggering this response? increase both a blood pH >7.45 is called _________ and can be caused by a defieiency of CO2 called __________ alkalosishypocapnia In lab you measured several respiratory volumes and capacities with a spirometer. What parameter were you measuring when you took the deepest inhalation you could and then exhaled all the air you possibly could into the spirometer? vital capacity inspiratory capacity expiratory reserve volume inspiratory reserve volume functional residual capacity vital capacity If Billy Ray's total lung capacity is 7000 mL, vital capacity is 5600 mL, tidal volume is 700 mL, and expiratory reserve volume is 1500 mL, what is Billy Ray's residual volume? 800 mL 1400 mL 2200 mL 700 mL 3400 mL 1400 mL When the CO2 concentration in the blood decreases, which of the following is TRUE? A. The pH of the blood increases. B. The H+ concentration in the blood increases. C. The rate of baroreceptor firing decreases. D. All of the above. E. A and B F. None of the above. D. all of the above Where are the central chemoreceptors found? carotid sinus pons carotid bodies and aortic bodies medulla oblongata Circle of Willis meduall oblongata Authoritzlinds ID140135 Card SetBiolab140.txt DescriptionRespiratory physiology Updated2012-03-19T15:21:39Z Show Answers