Spinal Cord and Brain

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  1. The brain is far more complex and versatile than the spinal cord

    The Brain contains roughly 20 billion neurons
  2. Like the Spinal cord, the brain has the same 3 Meninges
  3. CNS - Brain
    Cerebrum - Largest part of the Human Brain

    • Divided into Left and Right cerebral Hemispheres
    • *Longitudinal Fissure

    Cerebral Cortex is made of Grey matter (3-4mm) Over 1 Billion neuron cell bodies

    • Arranged in Convolutions (gives scrunchy look)
    • gyri (projections) + sulei (grooves)

    Left side of the brain side controls the right side and vice versa
  4. The Cereberal Cortex

    4 Lobes
    • Frontal Lobe
    • *motor control
    • *Thought Processing
    • *Speech

    • Parietal Lobe
    • *recieves sensory info (from skin and muscles)
    • *taste

    • Occipital Lobe
    • *Sight

    • *Temporal Lobe
    • *Hearing
    • *Smelling
  5. 4 Major Regions of the Brain
    • 1. Cerebrum
    • Corpus Collosum - Nerve Fibers connecting the right side to the left side

    2. Cerebellum - coordination of skeletal muscle and posture

    • 3. Brain Stem -
    • *Mid Brain - Visual and Auidtory processing
    • *Pons
    • *Mendulla Oblongata - Breathing, Cardiac Center
    • Corpura Quadrigemina
    • (2 Superior colliculi - visual)
    • (2 inferior colliculi - auditory)

    • 4. Diencephalon
    • *Epithalmus - pineal gland -Melatonin secretion
    • *Thalamus - relay center
    • *Hypothalmus -Maintains Homeostasis
    • *Pituitary Gland (Master Gland)
  6. The Limbic System
    Integrates - emotions and reasoning

    Pleasure Center - Behaviors

    Amygdala - Emotions

    Hippocampus - Memories and Expeirences
  7. The Ventricles of the Brain

    Cavities Containing Cerberalspinal Fluid
    • Ventricles cavities that produce cereberalspinal fluid
    • 3 Functions
    • *Cushioning
    • *delivers nutrients, removal of waste
    • *Buoyancy
  8. The Ventricales of the Brain

    4 Ventricles
    • Lateral Ventricles (1-2)
    • 3rd Ventricle dumps into the ceberal aquaduct to the 4th Ventricle.
    • 4th Ventricle

    150 ML of spinal fluidin the brain replenishes every 8 hours.
  9. Cranial Nerves

    Cranial Nerves - Components of PNS; connect to the brain rather than the spinal cord
    12 pairs

    Numbered using the Romoan numerals

    Each cranial nerve attaches to the brain near the associate sensory or motor nuclei
  10. Olfactory Nerve

    Cranial nerve 1 (NI)
    Primary Functin - Smell

    Destination - Temporal lobe via olfactory bulbs
  11. Optic Nerve

    Cranial Nerve 2

    Primary Function - Vision

  12. The Oculomotor

    Cranial Nerve 3

    Primary Function: Motor - Eye movements

    Destination: Eye Muscles
  13. The Trochlear Nerve

    Functions: Motor>eye movements

    Destination: Eye Movements
  14. The Trigeminal Nerve

    Primary Functions: Mixed (sensory and Motor)

    Destination: Pons - Sensory from the face

    muscles for the Mastication ( motor)
  15. The Abducens Nerve

    Primary Functions: Eye Movement

    Destination: Eye Muscle
  16. The Facial Nerve

    Promary Function: Mixed (sensory and motor)

    • Destination:
    • Pons - (sensory>taste)
    • Facial Muscles, tears, saliva > Motor
  17. The Vestibulocochlear Nerve

    Primary Function: Balance, Equilibrium, and hearing

    • Destination: Pons and Mundulla Oblongata
    • CNV thru CNVIII are Pons
  18. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve

    (N IX)
    • Promary Function:
    • Mixed (sensory and motor)

    • Destination:
    • mendulla oblongata (sensory>taste)

    • Somatic motor
    • >Pharyngeal muscles invloved in swallowing

    Visceral motor - Partoid salivary gland
  19. The Vagus Nerve

    (N X)
    Primary Function; Mixed (sensory and Motor)

    • Destination:
    • Sensory Fibers to mendulla oblongata
    • somatic motor to muscles of the palate and pharynx
    • visceral motor t respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive organs
  20. The Accessory Nerve

    (N XI)
    Primary Function: Motor

    • Destination:
    • Internal branch innervates voluntary muscles of the palate, pharynx, larynx and neck
  21. The Hypoglossal Nerve

    (N XII)
    Primary Function: Motor

    Destination: Muscles of tissue
  22. Need to Know:
    • Cranial Nerve #
    • Name
    • Function
    • Origin/Destination

    • Need to Know
    • Sensory
    • Motor
    • Mixed

    Check Lab Book
Card Set
Spinal Cord and Brain
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