Social Studies Colonial America

  1. Who was John Winthrop?
    Came to MA on ship Arbella in 1630 with the Puritans. "We must knit together as one." He was a lawyer who led the Puritans to Massachusetts Bay in 1630. He was elected first governor by Puritan men since women were ot allowed to vote.
  2. What was happening when Pilgrims first settled in Plymouth, MA?
    The group of English Protestants called Puritans were growing in numbers in England.
  3. Why did the Puritans go to New England?
    So that they could practice their religion freely, and because they thought the Church of England was too much like the Roman Catholic Church ("Popish").
  4. What happened in 1629?
    A group of Puritans agreed to form the Massachusetts Bay Company if King Charles 1 of England would give them a charter to settle in North America.
  5. Where did the Puritans land in 1630?
    In an area John SMith had reached in 1614 and later named New England.
  6. What did the Puritans call their settlement?
    Massachusetts Bay (Massachusetts).
  7. What was different from the Pilgrims in the settlement of Puritans?
    The Puritans arrived in great numbers--on 11 ships (rather than just 1); rather 100 people, there were 700 of them. They also brought supplies, a herd of cows, and about 60 horses.
  8. What does "Massachusetts" mean?
    It means "at or near the great hill" in Algonquin, the language of the Native Americans.
  9. Where did the Puritans found their colony?
    Along the Charles River. The new colony's first settlement was named "Boston."
  10. What was the terrain like?
    It was hilly with thin and rocky soil. Still, the area had many natural resources that helped the Puritans survive.
  11. What natural resources were there, and where did they come from?
    The forest supplied wood, Charles River and Atlantic Ocean provided many different kinds of fish.
  12. What was the population change between 1630 and 1640?
    The colony went from 700 people in 1630 to over 20,000 in 1640. It was one of the largest populations of any European colony in North America at the time.
  13. What was the form of government?
    Each "free man," as a male colonist was called, signed a covenant. A covenant is a special promise or agreement, in which each free man promised that his family would live the the rules of the Puritan church.
  14. What was in a Puritan settlement?
    At the center was the meeting hosue and village common. In earlier villages the meeting house also served as the church.
  15. What did Puritans believe about education?
    They believed it was important, and that everyone should be able to read the Bible. Unlike in Europe, schools were free.
  16. Who was Roger Williams?
    One of the Puritans who did not share the beliefs of some of the other Puritan leaders. Williams thought that the colony should tolerate different religious beliefs.
  17. Who was Anne Hutchinson?
    Like Roger Williams, she disagreed with Puritan leaders. She believed people should pray to God rather than depend upon church teachigns. Both Williams and Hutchinson went to trial.
  18. What happened to Roger Williams?
    He went trial. The leaders wanted him to change his views. Instead he fled Massachusetts in 1636. (What really happened: the minister came to his house after his trial and told him that his sentence would mean being sent back to England. The minister counseled Williams to flee, which he did.)
  19. Where did Williams go?
    He founded the settlement of Providence in what later became Rhode Island. It was the first European colony in the Americas to allow freedom of religion.
  20. What happened to Anne Hutchinson?
    She was forced to leave Massachusetts, too. In 1638, she went to Rhode Island, where she founded the settlement of Portsmouth.
  21. Who was Thomas Hooker?
    He was another Puritan minister who left Massachusetts. He believed that each church should be independent and should choose its own leaders. In 1636 he and about 100 followers founded the colony of Connecticut.
  22. What happened as the New England colonies grew?
    Native Americans lost their land. At first some NA helped colonists. When Roger Williams fled, for example, the Narragansett let him live on their land. In return, he paid them for land on Narragansett Bay where he started his colony.
  23. What happened in what later became the Connecticut colony?
    Fighting broke out between the Pequot and the English colonists. In the Pequot War of 1637, hundreds of the Pequot and colonists were killed. After the war, fighting between the colonists and Native Americans stopped for nearly 40 years. During that time colonists moved to what is now New Hampshire and what later became the colonies of Vermont and Maine.
  24. What happened in 1675?
    The Wampanoag leader Metacomet, whom the English called King Phillip, was ready for fight for Wampanoag lands. Many NA joined him. King Phillip's War, as the struggle was called, was fierce. NAs destroyed 16 towns in MA. In 1676, Metacomet was killed. His family was sold into slavery in the West Indies. HIs defeat ended strong NA resistance in NE.
  25. Who was William Penn?
    A Quaker who was granted land in the colonies by King Charles in 1681.
  26. What's the "real" story behind Penn's grant?
    Usually the King would despise the Quakers, but the Penn family had lent the crown money, and the King still owed a lot of this money. Instead of paying them back, he gave William Penn land in the colonies. (The English crown did not tolerate religions besides the state religion.)
  27. What did the Quakers call themselves?
    The Society of Friends.
  28. Who started the Quaker religion?
    Started by George Fox in 1652 (shortly after the English Civil War). He said that they did not need ministers; to know God they only had to listen to His voice in their hearts.
  29. What were Penn's plans for his colony based on?
    Quaker beliefs. Believed that people should be treated fairly, and many were against slavery (abolitionists). Most treated NAs with respect.
  30. What did Penn call his colony?
    Pennsylvania (which means "Penn's Woods")
  31. What was Penn's settlement in the colony named?
    Philadelphia (brotherly love in Greek).
  32. Who were the Lenape?
    Native Americans also known as the Delaware, whom Penn believed should be included in his plans for the colony. He said that they could "live together as neighbors and friends."
  33. What did do that was unlike most European colonists?
    He paid the NAs for their land. Because of this, relations among NAs and the Cs in Pennsylvania stayed peaceful for many years.
  34. Which were considered the "Middle Colonies."
    Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and New York. The new colony was started on land that had been part of PA.
  35. How did the population of Philadelphia change?
    In 1720 there were about 10,000 colonists in Philadelphia; by 1760, there were 22,000.
  36. What was the geography of the Middle Colonies?
    Reached west from the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Rivers and lakes criss-crossed the region.
  37. What were the natural resources of the Middle Colonies?
    Colonists used the waterways to send lumber, crops, and animal furs to markets in coastal cities. New York Harbor was one of the busiest ports in the 13 English colonies.
  38. What was farming like in the Middle Colonies?
    For colonial farmers, the land was much richer in the Middle Colonies than in New England. The MC came to be known as the breadbasket of the colonies."
  39. Who founded the colony of New Netherland?
    The Dutch in the middle 1600s. Henry Hudson had first claimed this area for the Dutch in 1609. They bought Manhattan island from the Mannahata and built a port there that became a center for trade--they called it New Amsterdam.
  40. When did King Charles II want to make New Netherland an English Colony?
    In 1664. The colony's leader Peter Stuyvesant protested. He was so unpopular with the Dutch that the English were able to take all of New Netherland without firing a single shot.
  41. What did the English rename New Netherland?
    New York, for King Charles II brother, the Duke of York.
  42. What was New Amsterdam named?
    New York City. Later the Duke of York gave part of NY to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Cateret. This land became the English colony of New Jersey.
  43. What were the demographics of the Middle Colonies?
    A diverse group that included Jewish people from Portugal (late 1600s), large number of Dutch people were already there. By the early 1700s many Germans had immigrated and became farmers. Since the German word for German is "Deutsch," they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch.
  44. What did the Pennsylvania Dutch do?
    They build the first Conestoga wagons. These wagons were used to carry farm goods to city markets.
  45. What did the Scot-Irish do?
    They were Scottish people who lived in Northern Ireland before coming to North America.
  46. What group was not treated fairly in the colonies?
    The Africans. Many of them were enslaved; some were free, but few enjoyed the same rights that European colonists enjoyed.
  47. What helped create the Southern Colonies?
    The Catholics. In 1634, KC1 gave Lord Baltimore (a Catholic) a charter to start a new colony for Catholics. He called the Maryland after Queen Henrietta Maria of England.
  48. Who contolled Maryland?
    Proprietors who owned all the land of the colony.
  49. What was happening south of Maryland?
    Virginia was growing--good land was becoming difficult to locate.
  50. What did KC2 give the "proprietors"?
    in 1663 gave 8 proprietors a charter to found Carolina. It was later divided into North Carolina and South Carolina.
  51. When was Georgia founded?
    in 1732.
  52. Southern colonies are:
    Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
  53. What groups of NAs inhabited the Southern Colonies?
    The Muscogee (also known as the Creek Indians) the Choctaw, and the Chickasaw.
  54. Which of the Southern Colony NA groups was the largest?
    The Creek. They only spoke one langague. Before Europeans arrived, the independant Creek villages formed one Creek confederacy. The confederacy was better able to protect Creek lands.
  55. Which group of NA lived along the Savannah River?
    Another group of Creek people called the Yamacraw. They built their village in a place called Yamacraw Bluff.
  56. Who was the Yamacraw chief in the early 1700s?
    Tomochichi. He met with the English colonists led by James Oglethorpe.
  57. Who was James Oglethorpe?
    A wealthy English army general. In 1729 he looked into England's prison system. He was shocked by the numbers of debtors, and he wanted to help. Years later he was granted a charter to start a colony in North America; he called the colony Georgia after King George 2nd.
  58. What is a debtor?
    Someone who owes money. If you could'nt pay your debts you were sent to prison in England. That's what Oglethorpe wanted to change.
  59. What made Georgia an attractive colony to King Geo.?
    He thought the location was good and politically strategic--It would separate the Carolinas from the Spanish and French lands.
  60. What did Oglethorpe give each of the new colonists?
    Land for growing grapes and raising silkworms. The climate didn't end up being good for silkworms, however.
  61. What is the geography of the Southern Colonies?
    The red clay soil at the foot of the Appalachian Mountains was good for growing corn and tobacco. The Atlantic Coastal Plain provided a long growing season of 7 months.
  62. What did planters in the Southern colonies grow?
    They grew rice and indigo. Indigo is a plant that produces a blue dye.
  63. When did Oglethorpe plan GAs first settlement, Savannah?
    In 1733. The site was next to Tomochichi's village, so Oglethorpe had to get him to agree to give him land on Yamacraw Bluff. He agreed.
  64. How did the Southern Colonists get labor?
    Oglethorpe did ot allow slavery and so the Southern COlonists pretended to "rent" enslaved Africans from South Carolina.
  65. By when was slavery well-established in GA?
    between 1750 and 1760 the number of enslaved Africans in GA increased from 1000 to 4000. By 1760 about 10,000 people lived in GA, and about 4000 were living as slaves.
Card Set
Social Studies Colonial America
Colonial America